Paintings From the Cave
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A Note from the Author
Did you know that you can look up any word in the text of the book or the text of the questions and answers? Just click (or press on mobile devices) the word you want to define and hold until the blue text selector pops up. When you release, a define option will appear. Since it’s so easy to look up words, make sure you use this feature frequently. In this book, some words are unique to culture of the time and will not be defined in the dictionary. You will have to rely on the words and sentences around the unfamiliar word to figure out the meaning. Try it right now to look up the word euphemism.
Why does Jake say that all that matters is to keep moving?
You can figure out information about characters from the clues the author gives in the text. You can infer Jake is scared of the boys because he knows they deal drugs and are violent. Watch the video below to learn more about making inferences. (This annotation contains a video)
What can you infer about Layla from the text?
Adjectives are used to describe a character’s personality. As you read think about what a character does, says, and what other characters say about him or her to find the appropriate adjective. Learn more about character traits in the video below. You can tell Jake is protective of Layla from how he looks after her. (This annotation contains a video)
What can you infer about the man with the iron heads?
The author uses a simile to compare the sharpness of the rat's teeth to a razor. Watch the following video to review several types of figurative language. (This annotation contains a video)
Why does Jake think the author is lying to him about families?
In this book there are many words used that have a meaning different from the dictionary. In this sentence the word "lift" means to steal. The video below will help you learn how to use context clues to figure out the meanings of words. (This annotation contains a video)
Why does Jake consider the people on the other side of the fence rich?
The selected sentence proves that watching Bill work on his sculptures provides an escape from his own life. Learn more about text based evidence in the video below. (This annotation contains a video)
Which excerpt from the text proves Jake does not trust Bill?
The point of view in a book refers to who is telling the story. The three types of point of view are described in the poster below. From which point of view do you think this story is told? (This annotation contains an image)
Using text evidence in the story so far, explain the different worlds of Jake and Bill.
Every story fits into a category, or genre. As you view this video about realistic fiction, think about how this book fits the genre. (This annotation contains a video)
How does the narrator's point of view impact the reader's understanding of the events of the text?
Good readers make connections to the text. Jake says that people don't notice the bad things in their environment unless they have to. Do you ever think about what life is like for people who are like Jake, extremely poor without someone to care for them?
Why doesn't Jake like the lights on at night?
Which detail from the text demonstrates the strength of the relationship between Jake and Layla?
Theme is a main idea of a book that is repeatedly addressed as the plot progresses. In this book, the developing theme is that kids can survive the worst circumstances by finding something beautiful to care about. As you continue to read this book, pay attention to how the kids learn to survive in their bad situations.
Bill sculpts busts, models of human heads, out of clay. Below is a picture of the bust of President John F. Kennedy. (This annotation contains an image)
What can you infer about Bill from the way he talks about working with clay?
Which excerpt from the text is an opinion?
Authors use foreshadowing to give a hint of what is to come later in the story, creating suspense. It may appear in the form of dialogue between characters, an event in the story which hints at a later event, or even the title may give clues about what is to come. What event do you think the selected sentence might foreshadow?
Good readers can summarize the main points of a text. Learn how to develop a summary in the following video. (This annotation contains a video)
Which statement is the best summary of this chapter so far?
How does Jake respond to Layla's death?
Read the poem "Mother to Son" by Langston Hughes found in the next annotation. In the poem, the speaker explains how life has been hard for her and advises her son as to how to deal with life's problems. The next question will ask you to compare the ways the speaker in the poem responds to her life situation and how Jake responds to his situation.
Well, son, I’ll tell you: Life for me ain’t been no crystal stair. It’s had tacks in it, And splinters, And boards torn up, And places with no carpet on the floor— Bare. But all the time I’se been a-climbin’ on, And reachin’ landin’s, And turnin’ corners, And sometimes goin’ in the dark Where there ain’t been no light. So boy, don’t you turn back. Don’t you set down on the steps ’Cause you finds it’s kinder hard. Don’t you fall now— For I’se still goin’, honey, I’se still climbin’, And life for me ain’t been no crystal stair.
Compare how the speaker in the poem "Mother to Son" responds to life's difficulties. How is Jake's motto to just keep moving similar to the speaker in the poem?
Quiz Story 1
Did you notice the author capitalized the word Biologicals in this passage? Jo doesn't think of her parents as people who take care of her. Biologicals is not a proper noun, but it is what she calls them instead of using Mom or Dad. Notice in the next paragraph the pronouns "they," "he," and "she" are also capitalized within a sentence.
Based on the story so far, Jo can be described as
Good readers make a picture in their mind from the imagery the author uses to describe a scene. Can you see the grass ticking the dogs' bellies and the speckled light on their fur?
Loren bullies Jo because she is different. How would you react to a bully? How does Jo react?
Explain what the narrator means in the selected sentence.
Pay attention to how the dogs communicate to Jo what they are feeling. Watch the video below that explains a bit about how dogs communicate. You will have to compare the two selections in the next question. (This annotation contains a video)
What are the similarities between the video clip about dog behavior and what Jo notices about her dogs?
From the text you know that Rose moves a lot because of her dad's job, which makes it hard for her to make and keep friends. Have you ever moved? How hard is it to start a new school and make new friends?
Which excerpt from the text best supports the theme of finding a way to escape the hardships in life?
Do you agree with Jo's thought in the selected sentence? What are some things that you do not enjoy that make time go slowly?
Jo notices qualities in Rose just as she does in her dogs. She can see Rose is lonely and that her eyes are dark compared to the rest of her face. What might be the cause of her dark eyelids?
Leukemia is cancer of the blood. When the white blood cells that fight infection become cancerous, they multiply quickly and infect other areas of the body. The good news is the survival rate for children with leukemia has grown to over 85%! Learn more about leukemia in the video below. (This annotation contains a video)
How does Jo respond when Rose reveals she has leukemia?
Which sentence from the text is the best example of the author's use of imagery?
Remission is the decrease or disappearance of the signs and symptoms of cancer. Doctors will continue to check for years to make sure the cancer does not come back.
Quiz Story 2
What detail leads you to infer Jaime and his brother are poor?
Plot is the pattern of events as they are told in a story which can be categorized into five sections. Learn how to identify the exposition, the first section, in the following video. What do you learn about Jaime and Erik in the exposition of this story? (This annotation contains a video)
Words often have a feeling, or connotation, associated with them. The word "reeked" has a negative connotation that matches Jaime's difficult situation.
The selected paragraph supports the theme of
Which detail about the man with the dogs makes Jaime interact with him?
You can infer that Jaime probably has never had anyone encourage his artwork before Greg. How does it feel when someone encourages you?
Writers use different structures to build the ideas of the story. Examine the text structure chart below. Which structure is used to tell this story? (This annotation contains an image)
Writers use flashbacks to add information to the current events in a story. A flashback stops the current story and changes the scene to tell the previous events as if the character is reliving the actual event. As you read, pay attention to what you learn about Erik in the flashback.
What do you learn about Erik from the flashback?
Which of the statements below explains why this story is told from the first person point of view?
Jaime feels a connection with Annie Oakley, pictured below, because of their similar abusive backgrounds. What do you think he will learn from her life story? (This annotation contains an image)
The rising action of the plot refers to the events that lead up to the climax. More events may happen that lead to the resolution of the conflict. In this story, the main conflict is Jaime's quest to find something that will allow him to cope with his abusive past and being homeless. He has found a passion for art, dogs, and reading.
Which of the following sentences from the text is an opinion?
Using context clues from the text, the word indeterminate most nearly means
The climax of the story is the point where the main character makes a major decision about how to solve the problems. Jamie realizes he can use his art to begin to heal from his traumatic experiences. Counselors sometimes ask children to draw in order to reveal what is too hard to say and release strong emotions, which can aid the healing process.
Use text evidence to explain the different opinions Greg and Jaime have about money.
Which word in the selected sentence is onomatopoeia?
Good readers often pause during reading to reflect on the accuracy of previous predictions and clear up any confusion about the story. Why do you think Erik is silent on the way to the apartment?
List several things Jaime is excited about in the apartment.
The falling action of the plot occurs after the climax. Other problems are solved and the story is beginning to wrap up. Jaime has begun his work at the animal shelter to work on his art portfolio.
What can you infer by Greg's wink?
In this final part of the falling action, the major problems are solved. Jaime has a dog and a home. They feel like a family.
The resolution of the plot reveals what happens after all the problems are solved and ends the story. Jaime has turned in his portfolio for the contest. He has figured out how to escape the trauma of his life with his mother and the story ends.
Quiz Story 3