Salt: A World History
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Introduction: The Rock
At times during your reading you will be asked to support your answers by citing textual evidence. Textual evidence is the core of argument and analysis. Textual evidence is support lifted directly from text to support inferences, claims, and assertions. The video explains more about the use of textual evidence. (This annotation contains a video)
The Cardona Salt Mountain is made entirely of salt. The site is no longer open for mining. The mine is now open to the public as a tourist destination and cultural park. The image shows the exterior of the Cardona Salt Mountain. (This annotation contains an image)
Do you know what "brine" is? You can look up the definition using Curriculet's awesome Define feature. Just click (or press on mobile devices) the word you want to define and hold until the blue text selector pops up. When you release, a define option will appear. Since it's so easy to look up words, make sure you use this feature frequently... Is there a word on this page you need to look up?
Let's try out the Define feature now. Use the Define feature to read the definitions for corrode. Which of the choices below has a meaning similar to corrode as it is used in the passage?
The image below shows some famous psychoanalysts in 1909. Sigmund Freud is on the left side of the bottom row. Ernest Jones is in the middle on the back row. (This annotation contains an image)
Why is salt essential to human health?
The second step to evaluating the claims the ideas an author puts forth is to look for how the writer supports his argument. Most of the time this is done by including evidence from research or other publications. We see in the selected text that the author has included information from a 16th century text called "The Prepared Table."
Finally, you have to ask yourself if the evidence is sufficient (quantity) and reasonable (quality). Does the author provide enough evidence? Is his logic reasonable?
Sometimes authors will make claims or ideas that may or may not be true. Part of being a fluent reader is the ability to read those claims and evaluate the information an author gives to support his claims. First, look for the author's purpose and his argument. The author's purpose is to inform his reader about the potency and dangers of handling salt. His argument is that salt has to be handled with care.
The modern animal we know as a pet dog is descended from what animal?
We no longer exclusively use metal as currency. Coins are still made from various metals, but some currency is made of paper. The printed currency we rely on today is a symbol of the bullion that is used to give value to the currency. In the United States, the country's gold reserves or bullion is stored at the U. S. Bullion Depository (seen below) in Fort Knox, Kentucky. (This annotation contains an image)
How was the rock described at the beginning of the Introduction unique? List and explain three pieces of textual evidence to support your response.
The map below shows the Sichuan Provence in China. The cuisine of the provence is so famous and sophisticated that United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognized it in 2011. (This annotation contains an image)
Which invention below is NOT attributed to the Chinese?
The image shows the location of Shanxi Provence in China. Shanxi is well known for its use of vinegar to flavor noodles. (This annotation contains an image)
How does the image of the soy plant help the reader to understand the text?
Kahm yeast (pictured below) is also a byproduct of making hot sauce. The yeast usually appears due to exposure to the air during the pickling process. (This annotation contains an image)
What are the long-term effects of the Dujiangyan dam system? Use two items of textual evidence to support your response.
The image below shows Li Bing's dam as it looks today. The dam allows farmers to irrigate over 5,300 square kilometers (over a million acres) of land. Imagine what a strong impact this dam makes. (This annotation contains an image)
The selected text is an example of a(n) ____________.
Saltpeter is not only used in gunpowder. It is also used in smaller explosives like firecrackers. The image below shows a small pile of saltpeter. (This annotation contains an image)
What is the implied difference between Confucianists and legalists, as presented in the text?
Think for a moment about what the Great Wall means to the world and to China in particular. About 2 to 4 million people visit the wall each year. The Chinese view the wall as symbol of ingenuity and pride. Do you think the legalist policy is from the modern perspective a good thing?
Briefly discuss the meaning of Laos's quote and how it applies to the short-term and long-term effects of salt production in ancient China.
A saltcellar is a piece of tableware that is used to hold salt. The image below shows a Chinese saltcellar. (This annotation contains an image)
What are the short-term effects of using salt to preserve food?
The video below explains how salt has a "superpower" over water that allows it to preserve foods. How does the video compare to what you have read so far about the history and uses of salt? (This annotation contains a video)
In what way does the culture of ancient Egypt use salt that the culture of ancient China does NOT?
The image below shows the Wadi al-Natron. In addition to being the source of the natron used for mummification, the area in the northwest of the Nile delta was also a monastic center for early Christians. (This annotation contains an image)
Read the selected text carefully. The author makes two claims about foods invented by the Phoenicians. Evaluate the two claims based on the following questions. Are the claims well supported by research? Do the claims sound reasonable?
A fluent reader of informational text is able to compare related historical developments and processes in different societies or within the same society. The selected text compares the technique of "dragging and gathering" across cultures.
Which sentence from the selected passage reveals the central idea?
The photo below shows a display of salts at an African salt market. Note the wide assortment of vivid colors of the available salts. (This annotation contains an image)
According to the Greek and Roman historians, which of the sentences below does NOT describe the Celtic people?
The Celts were an Iron Age tribe of people that shared a similar language and culture. The map below shows how the Celts expanded throughout Europe. (This annotation contains an image)
What can the reader imply from the selected text?
The author argues the Celts were exceptionally good at salted meat. You learned in Chapter 1 to ask yourself three questions: What is the author's argument? Is the evidence for support enough? Is the evidence reasonable? The video below explains how to further evaluate the evidence an author includes. (This annotation contains a video)
The image of the painting by Lionel Royer shows Vercingetorix laying down his weapons before Julius Caesar. Does Vercingetorix look like the Celts described by the Greek and Roman historians? (This annotation contains an image)
How does the image of the stater help the reader to better understand the text?
The Tiber River and a bridge of Rome near St. Peter's Basilica in Rome are pictured below. Can you remember the impact that rivers had on the salt trade in China and Egypt? (This annotation contains an image)
Use your own words to briefly compare and contrast the salt trade in ancient Rome to that of China and Egypt. Include evidence from the text to support your response.
Watch the brief video below to see how an egg floats in salt water. How does the amount of salt impact the flotation of the egg? (This annotation contains a video)
What is one long-term impact of the Celtic preservation methods?
Informational text can be structured in different ways. The selected text is an example of sequencing. Recipes include steps that are usually completed in the order they are written. Can you think of other examples when the sequence structure might be used?
Why is the island of Sicily known as the "breadbasket of Rome?"
The selected text is also structured sequentially. The original author provides the steps for making garum. If you think a text structure maybe sequence, look for clue words such as those used in the passage. "After" and "next" let the reader know that the text is providing a sequence to be followed.
Evaluate the author's argument that 'salt has clear healing powers." Remember to address the questions of sufficient evidence and reasonable evidence in your response. For additional information, you can link to the site below. Include examples from both texts to clarify and support your response.http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-18851/Discover-healing-power-oceans.html
Much has been said about garum in the text. It looks as interesting as it sounds. A bowl of garum is pictured below. (This annotation contains an image)
Which of the sentences from the text explains the importance of the purple dye to the Romans?
Sardines are still eaten by humans. The tiny fish are so tightly packed into the can during packaging that it has become common to say "people are packed like sardines" when they are closely crowded together in a small space. The image below shows the sardine. (This annotation contains an image)
Use the Define feature to read the definition for the word aspirants. Which of the words below is a synonym for aspirants as it is used in the text?
Egalitarianism is the belief that all people are valued equally in a society. Other city states shared Venice's passion for social equality. Look at the map of modern Venice below. Very little has changed in the city over the centuries. Do you think the city's isolation from mainland Italy impacted the success of egalitarianism? (This annotation contains an image)
What economic impact does the destruction of Venice's salt ponds have? Explain and include evidence from the text to support your response.
The source of Venice's wealth is an example of the economic forces of supply and demand. Demand is the amount of a product that buyers are willing to purchase at a certain price. Supply is the amount of the product that is available to the buyer.
The author claims Rusticello "may have taken great liberties to improve the story" of Marco Polo's adventures in China. What evidence does the author include to support his claim? Evaluate the evidence by explaining the author's purpose for making the claim as well as the sufficiency and reasonableness of his evidence.
Many Venetians believed Marco Polo's adventures were fictional due to the lack of certain details. The book eventually earned the title "Il Milione" which translates as "A Million Lies." The image below is a portrait of Marco Polo as a young adult. Do you think Marco Polo lied in his book? What evidence supports your opinion? (This annotation contains an image)
Read the selected sentence carefully. "Anomaly" may be an unknown word to you. The sentence provides clues to its meaning. Which of the words below from the sentence help the reader to understand the meaning of "anomaly" as it is used in the text?
Veleia is interesting from an archaeological perspective. Excavation of the area unearthed the largest bronze tablet from antiquity and provided evidence that the Veleiates lived much longer than inhabitants from other towns. The image below shows the ruins of Veleia. (This annotation contains an image)
What do the vessels in the image represent?
The human body needs salt to function, but studies have found that too much salt can lead to high blood pressure, cancer, heart disease, and bone brittleness.
How is Parma similar to Egypt?
If Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese has any flaws or mold, it cannot be called Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese. The photo below shows the cheese master at work. (This annotation contains an image)
What conclusion can the reader draw from the selected text?
The selected text is an example of the descriptive structure of informational text. What is being described in the passage?
Why does Catalonia become a commercial power in the ninth century?
John Cabot is thought to have been the first European to visit mainland North America since the Vikings at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland 300 years earlier. (This annotation contains an image)
The Basque Country straddles the border between Spain and France. The Basques also settled the Southwestern region of the United States. The map below shows the traditional geography of the Basque Country. (This annotation contains an image)
According to the text what parts of the whale are the most profitable?
Which excerpt from the text helps the reader to understand the meaning of harpooner as it is used in the passage?
The Faroe Islands are a Dutch chain of islands located midway between Norway and Iceland. What part do you think the location of the Faroe Islands played in the Viking settlement of Iceland? The map below shows the location of the Faroe Islands. (This annotation contains an image)
What is the author's purpose, or reason, for including excerpts from ancient recipe books in the book?
Today, salt continues to be harvested by hand in Noirmoutier. The image below shows salt being harvested from the tidal marshes of Noirmoutier. (This annotation contains an image)
Why do you think solar evaporation is a more cost-effective method of producing salt? Use evidence from the text to support your response.
L'Anse aux Meadows is the disconcertingly translated as Jellyfish Cove. The site provides evidence that Europeans travelled to North America long before Christopher Columbus. The image below shows a Norse sod house at L'Anse aux Meadows. What do you think the purpose of the grass-covered roof is? (This annotation contains an image)
The author states that Aviero is an "ideal salt-making location." Based on your reading of the text so far, which of the qualities below is NOT essential for salt production?
Dylan Thomas lived and wrote during the first half of the 20th Century. He is most famous for his play "Under Milk Wood" and the poem "Do Not Go Gentle Into that Good Night." The quote in the text is from the prologue to his book of poems. The image below show Dylan Thomas. (This annotation contains an image)
What can the reader infer from the word "white" in the names of the Breton towns Guérande and Gwenn-Rann?
The Celtic language, or Old Celtic, is no longer spoken. However, there are languages that have descended from the Celts. The video below shows the President of Ireland delivering the 2008 St. Patrick's Day message in Gaelic. Gaelic is a language that grew from Old Celtic and is common in Ireland. (This annotation contains a video)
Were you surprised to learn that corned beef doesn't have any corn in it? Corned beef is still a St. Patrick's Day treat and can be ordered every day in most delis. The image below shows a corned beef sandwich. Are you hungry now? (This annotation contains an image)
Look closely at the recipe from Theodora Fitsgibbon's book of Irish recipes. Then review a recipe from a previous chapter. How are the recipes different?
Use the Define feature to read the meaning of blanch. Write a sentence below using blanch in the same way it is used in the text.
The selected text is an example of the cause and effect text structure that is common to informational text. The cause is why an event happens. The effect is the event. In the example, the event is an increase in sea salt production. The cause of the increase is improved artificial pond technology and soaring salt cod profits. As you read, look for other examples of the cause and effect structure.
How are the Swedes similar to the Basque?
The Atlantic herring (pictured below) is the most abundant species harvested by man. They are usually found in large schools near the shore. (This annotation contains an image)
What information does the selected text give the reader about the poor?
The video below shows a group of students making salt by allowing water to evaporate out of brine over a fire. How is the method in the video different from that used by the Dutch? (This annotation contains a video)
Which of the options below is not a reason given in the text for the uniqueness of herring?
Smoking meat is a lengthy process. Meat is usually hung from a meat hook over a small fire. Chemicals in the smoke from the fire slows the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms. Some meats are smoked in small kilns made of brick. Modern smokers are made of steel or aluminum. The image below shows a brick smoking kiln. (This annotation contains an image)
What type of text structure is exemplified by the selected passage?
Surströmming is usually eaten outdoors due to the strong odor that accompanies a freshly opened can like the one pictured below. (This annotation contains an image)
Explain in your own words what leads to the decline of the Hanseatic League. When possible include items of evidence from the text to support your explanation.
Does the selected text sound familiar? A similar method is used by the Basque culture to spot whales in Chapter 7. Do you think the similarity of methods is a coincidence?
What does the god Neptune symbolize on the saltcellar of King François I?
The image below shows a typical choucroute following the Alsace recipe. (This annotation contains an image)
Captain James Cook (pictured below) was a British explorer and naval officer. Cook was the first European to visit Australia, New Zealand, and the Hawaiian Islands. (This annotation contains an image)
Based on what you have read, which characteristics make the swampy area of Gaul ideal for salt-making? Use evidence from the text to support your response.
The map below shows the Mediterranean coast of France. Aigues-Mortes is slight left of center. (This annotation contains an image)
What is meant by the "the drunkard's biscuit?"
The Lüneburg town hall was built in 1230. It is widely regarded as the most beautiful in Germany. Click the link below to take a video tour of the town hall. (This annotation contains a video)
Why do the residents of Coullioure believe they are immune to the bubonic plague?
The weather and temperature in mines and caves tends to be consistent. A primary cause of weather and temperature fluctuation is the wind. The further from the entrance of cave or mine the less air flow exists. The temperature of the bedrock sets the temperature of the cave.
Why is wood used in the production of salt?
The author makes the claim that "rivers were essential to central European saltworks." What evidence has he used throughout the text to support this claim? Evaluate this evidence for quantity and reasonableness.
The Steckenitz Canal is a shallow 33 inches deep and travels 58 miles from Elba to the Trave River. The image below shows a section of the canal. (This annotation contains an image)
A monopoly exists when a single company or person supplies a product to a market. The supplier reaps a large profit from the lack of competition.
Why do you think the author draws attention to the different religious groups?
A communist revolution occurs when the working class attempts to take control from the ruling class. The revolution is usually motivated by economic suppression. Communist revolutions are typically inspired by the works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (shown below). (This annotation contains an image)
Which spice is not used in the making of solonina?
The map below shows the location of Moravia. (This annotation contains an image)
Pan Tadeusz was written by Adam Mickiewicz. What is Mickiewicz implying in the selected section of the poem?
William the Conqueror (seen below) became the King of England in 1066. He was illiterate and never spoke English, yet some historians believe his policies paved the way for England to become the most powerful nation in Europe. (This annotation contains an image)
What does the author mean when he states "The market for salt fish proved more durable than the religious convictions that created it?"
Tonnel is a middle French word meaning barrel. The intent in the passage is to carve a barrel within a barrel.
Saint Martin is the patron saint for which group of people?
William Cullen of Scotland is credited with being the first to experiment with artificial refrigeration. Cullen's experiments took place in 1775 and focuses on creating a vacuum and boiling ether to absorb heat.
The selected text is an example of which type of figurative language?
The Haitian revolution took place in the French colony of Saint-Dominique from 1791 to 1804. The revolution is historically significant because it is the only slave revolt that led to the founding of a nation. The video below explains the revolution in greater detail. How do you think the revolution was perceived by Americans and Europeans? (This annotation contains a video)
What is the author's claim in the selected passage? Does sufficient evidence exist in the text to support the claim? Is the evidence reasonable?
James II was deposed for his affiliation with the Catholic church. His daughter Mary was a protestant and James I's heir until the birth of his son James Stuart. James's birth removed Mary from the direct line of succession upsetting many in the English Parliament. Mary's husband William of Orange invaded England and assumed control of the country leading to the unification of Scotland with England. (This annotation contains an image)
Which of the excerpts from the text helps the reader to understand the meaning of "pan scale" as it is used in the text?
Thomas Lowndes was a professor of astronomy at Cambridge University. He inherited the Cheshire land of his parents which he later gave to Cambridge to found the chair of astronomy and geometry. Lowndes claimed to be a powerful influence in the purchase of the Carolinas by the English crown.
"Neither has it any ill Savour" implies that the salt does not have _________________.
The history of the Aztecs most likely began with a nomadic group known as the Mexicas. If Mexicas sounds familiar, it should. The Aztecs settles in what is now central and southern Mexico. The Aztec civilization endured until the arrival of the Spanish in 1519. Disease and the use of ritual human sacrifice brought about the end of a once great people.
Which sentence from the text tells the central idea of the selected paragraph?
The map below shows the extent of the Mayan civilization. (This annotation contains an image)
The use of salt as money is a recurring motif throughout Salt. Based on what you have read so far, what characteristics of salt make it a suitable currency? Use textual evidence to support your response.
The map below shows the location of the Cape Verde Islands off the eastern coast of Africa. (This annotation contains an image)
Why are Europeans in the 17th and 18th centuries fighting over the Caribbean islands?
The Bermuda sloop is a single masted vessel although it can have as many as three masts. Three masted vessels are referred to as schooners. The sloop is the larger of the two vessels in the image below. (This annotation contains an image)
What is a salt raker?
Why do you think the manor homes described in the text are not as elegant as those built in Virginia, Alabama, and the West Indies?
The image below illustrates the process of pumping water into evaporation ponds and boilers during the salt making process. (This annotation contains an image)
Why does John Smith believe that fishing will bring settlers to the New World?
Plymouth Colony is now the modern town of Plymouth, Massachusetts. Plymouth along with Jamestown was one of the first successful English colonies in the New World. It was founded by a group of men and women who chose to separate themselves from the Church of England. These "separatists" became known as Pilgrims. The image below shows what the colony may have looked like. (This annotation contains an image)
Based on your knowledge of the text, why is Liverpool able to offer salt at a cheaper rate than other producers? What makes the salt more accessible?
The English colonies in America were Georgia, the Carolinas, Virginia, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire. The map below shows the location of each colony. (This annotation contains an image)
What is the Continental Congress's response to the salt shortage?
The darker red on the map below shows the location of Dennis, Massachusetts on Cape Cod. Dennis and other Cape saltworks began to decline with the coming of the railroad and the discovery of salt mines in New York state. The salt vats were torn down in the 1890s. (This annotation contains an image)
Use the Define feature to read the definitions for despot. Which of the sentences below uses despot in a similar way as it used in the passage?
The image below shows the Pays de Grande Gabelle in pink as well as the other zones mentioned in the text. (This annotation contains an image)
What is the role of salt in mercantilism?
The Pays de Petite Gabelles and Salines are identified in purple and green on the map below. (This annotation contains an image)
What can the reader infer from the selected text?
The central idea of a passage is the author's message to the reader. In the selected passage the first sentence prepares the reader for what is to come in the paragraph. The central idea of the passage is the gabelous and the unscrupulous behavior they engaged in. The video below explains more about identifying the central idea of a passage. (This annotation contains a video)
What do you believe the outcome of the Assembly's actions will be?
Napolean Bonaparte was a brilliant military leader who went on to become the emperor of France in the 19th century. Napolean was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo and exiled. He dies at the age of 51 while in exile on the isle of St. Helena. A portrait of Napolean can be seen below. (This annotation contains an image)
How does the illustration enhance the reader's understanding of the text?
In 1940, the Germans under orders from Adolph Hitler invaded and took control of continental France. The Germans maintained control of the country until 1946 when the United States and her allies invaded Normandy on June 6th. The exiled government of France returned to establish the fourth republic under the leadership of Charles de Gualle.
What event leads to the enormous increase in the price of Cape Cod salt?
The Onondaga Salt Works is now a museum and part of the Onondaga Lake Park in central New York. The image below shows the Onondaga salt fields beside the lake in 1870. (This annotation contains an image)
What does the selected text refer to?
What does Thomas Jefferson mean in the selected quote?
The United States declared war against Britain in 1812 for several reasons. Britain had imposed trade restrictions, the forced service of Americans into the Royal Navy, British alliances with Native Americans to slow American expansion across North America, and American interest in annexation of British Canada.
What do you think the potash from the saltworks symbolizes? Why was it added to the Seneca Chief for the trip along the Erie Canal?
The Erie Canal is now part of the New York State Canal System. The canal helped New York City to become the largest port on the east coast of the United States. The canal is now recognized as one of the most influential man-made waterways built in North America. The image below shows a length of the Erie Canal. (This annotation contains an image)
"This Virginia River" refers to ____________.
Applying what you have learned about salt production, what do you think the economic implications of the Potomac River becoming "America's central waterway?" Which river do you think holds that title in the modern era?
How does slave labor make salt production more economical for both producers and consumers?
Kanawha Valley salt manufacturers of the early 19th century banded together to form what has been called this nation's first trust. They formed the Kanawha Salt Company on November 10, 1817.
What claim does the author make in the selected sentence? How does the author support this claim? Evaluate the quality and the quantity of the support.
The East India Company was a joint-stock company formed to establish trade with the East Indies of southern Asia. Investors could purchase shares in the company. Dividends were paid out in proportion to the number of shares owned. The more shares an investor owned the higher the return on his investment.
The title of Chapter Sixteen is a play on words. The reader can infer from the title that the chapter will be about salt production during _____________________.
Abraham Lincoln (pictured below) was the 16th President of the United States. Lincoln began his career as a lawyer in Springfield, Illinois. During his presidency he influenced the emancipation of slaves and guided the nation through the Civil War. He was assassinated at Ford's Theatre in Washington D.C. (This annotation contains an image)
Why is the taking of the Kanawha Salt Works a major blow to the South?
The green arrow points to St. Joseph Bay in the Florida panhandle. (This annotation contains an image)
Which word in the selected sentence means the same as "conscription?"
The Battle of Gettysburg occurred in 1863. It was the farthest north the Southern farmy led by General Robert E. Lee would move. 51,000 soldiers from both sides of the war were killed, wounded or captured during the three days of the battle.
What is one purpose of the newspaper recipes printed during the Civil War?
The image below illustrates a typical smokehouse from the 19th century. Cuts of meat were hung by hooks from the rafters in the ceiling while a hardwood fire burned below. (This annotation contains an image)
What conclusions can the reader draw from the selected text?
The image below shows Avery Island (Petite Anse) from the air. The area at the bottom left is the salt dome. The fields to the right of the dome are used for pepper farming. Most Southerners will recognize Avery Island and McIlhenny as the birthplace and founder of Tabasco respectively. (This annotation contains an image)
Why is the Confederate money no longer useful?
The image below shows the Capsicum frutescens plant and fruit. A tarantula was discovered in 2006 with a venom having similar painful affects as the capsaicin. This is the first instance of a plant and animal sharing a common defense against mammals. (This annotation contains an image)
What is an inference that a reader can make from the selected text?
Tabasco sauce is a hot sauce made from the tabasco pepper ( a variation of the Capsicum frutescens), vinegar, and salt. The sauce is still manufactured by the McIlhenny family on Avery Island. (This annotation contains an image)
Based on your knowledge of salt production, what makes the southern end of San Fransisco Bay ideal for salt making?
The Mexican patio process required that silver ore be crushed and mixed with salt, water, mercury and copper sulfate. The mixture is placed in a shallow pool (patio) similar to the evaporation pools used in salt making. The mixture soaks in the sun until the mercury and silver react to form an amalgam. The image below shows the patio process being used at the Comstock Lode. (This annotation contains an image)
What accounts for the lack of success in using camels to transport salt?
Dunaliella salina is a green algae found not only in salt fields but also in cosmetics and dietary supplements. The image below shows the red color referenced in the text. (This annotation contains an image)
According to the clerihew, who discovered sodium?
The Pneumatic Institution of Bristol was founded by Thomas Beddoes to experiment with newly discovered gases such as oxygen and hydrogen. Beddoes was inspired to create the institute by the concentration of patients with tuberculosis in the Bristol area. The institution became a normal hospital in 1802. The image below shows the institution which no longer stands. (This annotation contains an image)
How are salts identified prior to the 20th century?
In addition to being a chemist, Glauber (pictured below) was also an alchemist. Alchemists sought the enigmatic philosopher's stone, a substance that can turn base metals into gold or silver. Alchemists also experimented with finding the elixir of life that would lead to rejuvenation and immortality. (This annotation contains an image)
Which of the choices below is NOT a reason Amelia Simmon's cookbook is considered the first American cookbook?
The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in 1700 and quickly proliferated outward to the rest of the world during the 18th and 18th centuries. Agriculture and rural living gave way to mass production and urban sprawl. The brief video at the link below provides an overview of the era. Do you think the quality of life changed for most people during the Industrial Revolution? (This annotation contains a link)
What event is responsible for the decline of the canal system?
Onondaga Lake (pictured below) in central New York became the dumping ground for sewage waste and chemical compounds such as PCBs, pesticides, creosotes, and other compounds. Clean up of the lake and its surroundings began in 1907 and continue to the present. (This annotation contains an image)
What is the impact of canning on the salt fish business?
Sarah Josepha Hale is the author of "Mary Had a Little Lamb" as well as an advocate for Thanksgiving as a national holiday. Hale is pictured below. (This annotation contains an image)
Use the Define feature to read the definitions for tintinnabulation as it is used in the passage. Use the Frayer Model to analyze the word tintinnabulation as it is used in the passage.Frayer Model:1. Write the definition of the word.2. What are some characteristics?3. What is an example for the word?4. What is a non-example for the word?
The first recorded account of using steam to power a turbine is attributed to a Greek inventor known as Hero of Alexandria (circa 1 BCE). The first practical use of the steam technology would come 17 centuries later when Spaniard Jerónimo de Ayanz used steam power to clear water from flooded mines. Thomas Savery of England is commonly credited with building the first steam engine. Hero's aeolipile is pictured below. What do you think it was used for? (This annotation contains an image)
The author states, “Georg Bauer, a German with the pen name Georgius Agricola, wrote on the origin of mountains, minerals, and underground water.” What science is typically associated with the "origin of mountains, minerals, and underground water?"
Gypsum (shown below) is a commonly mined mineral used in fertilizer, plaster, dry wall, and blackboard chalk. (This annotation contains an image)
What do geologists identify as a primary cause of salt domes?
The Goderich Salt Company continues to produce salt in modern times. The company boasts a production rate of nine million tons of salt each year. (This annotation contains an image)
To what does the selected quote refer?
The map below shows the location of Cheshire. Northwich, Nantwich, and Winsford are all town located within the red area of the map. (This annotation contains an image)
What type of text structure is exemplified by the Chamber's Journal?
The sinkhole in the photograph below is the result of potash mining. (This annotation contains an image)
Use your own words to explain how the Compensation Act most likely helped the Salt Union.
The selected paragraphs employ the compare and contrast text structure. What is being compared and contrasted in the selected passages?
The Red Lion Hotel (below) still stands in Marston, England. The Lion Salt Works founded in the back of the hotel is the only open pan saltworks remaining in the area. (This annotation contains an image)
Salt serves many important purposes in baking bread. Salt provides flavor, makes bread dough pliable, slows the fermentation of the yeast, helps with browning of the crust, and preserves the color and taste of the flour.
What is one reason for the demise of the Thompson's saltworks?
Also know as the British Raj or the period of dominion, the British ruled India from 1858 to 1947. A map from 1893 shows the extent of the British presence in India. (This annotation contains an image)
What does the selected text imply about Britain?
What point of view is expressed in the selected Chinese proverb? Use your own words to explain how the point of view applies to the Maratha and the British.
The map below shows the contested border between Orissa (purple) and Bengal (light brown). (This annotation contains an image)
Why does the commissioner of Orissa warn the colonial government against decreasing salt production?
What impact does the cessation of salt production have on the local population? What do you think the British can do to improve the situation peacefully?
The caste system in India is founded in the Hindu religion and based on personality, profession, and birth. The rigidity of the system prevents people from a lower caste from climbing any higher. The image below shows the hierarchy of the caste system as well as the professions typically associated with them. (This annotation contains an image)
What does Gandhi mean by the selected statement?
An ashram is an Indian monastery where Hindu culture and spirituality are practiced. Gandhi's Sabarmati Ashram is pictured below. (This annotation contains an image)
Look at the image at the link below.https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/7ecgd2ynhtI9aF66TSvmKPqWDR91VHLXsOojptQGCE7Jrz3O1bdoLQORfQMOk27Vzk...Which profession is typically attributed to the untouchable caste based on the information in the information in the diagram?
Gandhi and his followers engaged in civil disobedience. An individual or group who refuses to obey the laws of a government are practicing civil disobedience. It can be violent or non-violent. Can you think of any other important people from history who have engaged in non-violent civil disobedience?
Martin Luther King, Jr. wrote "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" in 1963 to protest the treatment of blacks during the Civil Rights Movement. Read the letter at the link below:http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/resources/article/annotated_letter_from_birminghamUse the space provided to write a compare and contrast of Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr. Use evidence from both texts to support your response.
The rock salt of the Punjab comes from an area called the salt range. The salt range is a hill system in Pakistan. (This annotation contains an image)
What is the strategic importance of Jerusalem during war time according to the text?
The photograph below is of Mount Sodom. The lone pillar in the center of the image is known as 'Lot's Wife'. The mountain is made entirely of salt. (This annotation contains an image)
The selected passage is an example of the ____________ text structure.
The Galilee Heights are located in northern Israel. The area has very little population due to the inhospitable terrain. The area is historically important and draws tourists from around the world.
The selected text describes the conditions experienced by the salt workers in Israel. Write a brief letter to an Israeli salt worker sharing your thoughts about his experiences.
Ein Bokek is named for the streams that pass through the area. The world's lowest installed ATM is in an Ein Bokek grocery store 1, 381 feet below sea level. (This annotation contains an image)
Use the Define feature to learn the meaning of diaspora. Which of the words below is a synonym (similar in meaning) to diaspora as it is used in the text?
The conveyor belt used by the Dead Sea Works is the third longest in the world. The structure was designed to preserve the beauty of the desert landscape. (This annotation contains an image)
The author argues that "common salt has become a nuisance." What evidence in the text exists to support this claim?
Peking refers to Beijing, the capital city for the Peoples Republic of China.
Which of the choices below describes the reaction of the smugglers encountered by Giles in 1877?
The Chinese have been producing salt from brine at Sichuan for centuries and still do so today. Some historians estimate that salt has been produced in the area for over 8,000 years. The image below shows the old salt wells of Sichuan. These same wells may have been seen by Dane during his term. (This annotation contains an image)
What does the color red symbolize in the Chinese culture?
The image shows Huibianzi. Would you eat food cooked over dung? It is a common practice in some areas of the world where wood and other fuel sources are scarce. (This annotation contains an image)
Why do the Chinese continue to use percussion drilling when more efficient methods have been discovered?
The Anshan Shanxi Guild Hall is now a museum and tourist attraction. Note the beautiful Chinese architecture. (This annotation contains an image)
Which of the dish choices below is NOT found on a menu in Sichuan?
Goiter can also be caused by cyanide poisoning in areas where people eat cyanide-laced food.
What does the author imply about the prevalence of goiter in the inland regions of China?
Epicurism refers to the practices or tastes of someone who enjoys food and drink. The author argues that the Chinese are obsessed with the food and drink of their culture.
Based on the Sichuan method of combining flavors, what would a combination of salty and bitter be called?
Huiguorou is twice-cooked pork. The pork is simmered and then fried to look like the image below. (This annotation contains an image)
Why does Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon believe Islam is not popular in China?
Which of the following is not an everyday necessity according to the Chinese jingle?
The bicycle rickshaw replaced the pulled method in the 1950s. Rickshaws are now primarily over-priced tourist attractions. (This annotation contains an image)
The top products exported by Sweden include petroleum, telephones, vehicle parts, and cars. The top five export destinations include: Germany, United Kingdom, Norway, Denmark, and the United States. (This annotation contains an image)
The Swedes often mention salt lakrits as the one thing they miss when traveling abroad. If you traveled to another country, what are some foods that you would miss that are unique to the United States?
How does the image contribute to your ability to infer information regarding the preparation of herring for canning?
Which of the following choices is NOT a product that uses salt?
Henri Matisse ( 1869-1954) was a revolutionary and influential painter and sculptor best known for his expressive color and the form of his Fauvist style. (This annotation contains an image)
What does the selected text imply about the importance of lamparos to fishermen?
The Caspian Sea, a salt lake lake between Europe and Asia, is the largest lake in the world. It is surrounded by the five countries, and the isolation of the Caspian basin, its climate and its sea characteristics like salinity gradients, have created a unique ecological system. (This annotation contains an image)
According to the text, why must the fish eggs be mixed with salt?
Cialome, an Arab fisherman song, was sung to invoke the gods for the hunt. (This annotation contains a video)
Use your own words to explain the point of view of the author regarding why it was difficult for Sicily to market its salt.
Which of the following is the reason Sfax is a good location for salt production?
For more than 160 years, the Morton Salt Company has been a leading distributor in North America. Its headquarters, located in Chicago, IL, employ nearly 3,000 people in the US, Canada, and the Bahamas. (This annotation contains an image)
What ingrediant did the Morton Salt Company add to their table salt so that it would "never cake or harden?"
How does the following Morton Salt advertisement, first appearing in 1914, contribute to the text and appeal to the consumer?
From early in the 1700's until 1960's, Salt Cay was one of the largest exporters of salt in the world. Today, you can still tour the Salinas (salt ponds) and windmills were the salt was actually produced. (This annotation contains an image)
Which of the following was a leading cause for salt merchants to survive, even after abolition in 1836?
According to the text, which is the leading use of salt in the United States?
During World War II, the Nazis looted museums and private collections then hid the plundered art and cultural artifacts in locations scattered across Germany and Austria. (This annotation contains an image)
What does the selected text imply about the use of salt mines to store nuclear waste for future generations?
The method of salt crust cooking, which comes from the ancient Chinese, is simply a means of preparing poultry, game, fish and meat evenly and with little loss of moisture. (This annotation contains an image)
Which of the following was NOT a use for alaea, or "dirty salt?"
How does the image contribute to the text regarding the practice of "salt rakers" in the Guerande region?
The highlighted term derived from the words for “cake”—kouign—and “butter”—amanenn—in the dialect of Brittany, France. It is a traditional pastry specialty of Brittany and is not served everyday, but only on special occasions. (This annotation contains an image)