The Republic

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The Republic is a Socratic dialogue by Plato, written in approximately 380 BC. It is one of the most influential works of philosophy and political theory, and Plato's best known work. In Plato's fictional dialogues the characters of Socrates as well as various Athenians and foreigners discuss the meaning of justice and examine whether the just man is happier than the unjust man by imagining a society ruled by philosopher-kings and the guardians. The dialogue also discusses the role of the philosopher, Plato's Theory of Forms, the place of poetry, and the immortality of the soul. (From feedbooks.com)
Curriculet Details
145 Questions
148 Annotations
3 Quizzes

This free digital curriculum for high school students contains interactive videos exploring the Socratic Method and ethos, logos, and pathos, as well as annotations describing analogies, sentence structure, and connotations. Students will explore the themes of justice and strength. The Common Core aligned questions, answers and quizzes in this free online unit will increase student engagement in the book while supporting reading comprehension.

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The Republic Part 1

The Republic is one of Plato's most popular pieces of writing and is unique in its format. This text is not a novel, poem, essay, nor story; moreover, it can be seen as an extended and dramatic conversation or dialogue. The Republic focuses on the central argument and question “What is Justice?” As a forward to this text, watch the following video clip of Robin Waterfield, editor of the Oxford World's Classics edition of Plato's Republic, in which he outlines why we should all read this text.  (This annotation contains a video)
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Examine the details in the highlighted line. Which character is the narrator of this text?  
Observe how a conversation is taking place here, however, there are no quotation marks. Don't let the lack of quotation marks confuse you as you read... Pay close attention to the context clues and speakers' names so that you can follow the discussion that takes place throughout the text.  
Socrates, whose bust is pictured below, lived from approximately 470/469 to 399 BC. He was a classical Greek philosopher who is well known and credited as one of the creators of Western philosophy. Why do you think Plato chose Socrates as his narrator?  (This annotation contains an image)
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Review the argument presented by Cephalus thus far. Which of the following best summarizes his definition of justice?  
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Examine the structure of the argument as it is presented in the highlighted excerpt. How does Socrates challenge each of the points that is presented to him?  
Did you know that you can look up any word in the text of the book or the text of the questions and answers? Just click (or press on mobile devices) the word you want to define and hold until the blue text selector pops up. When you release, a define option will appear. Since it's so easy to look up words, make sure you use this feature frequently... Is there a word on this page you need to look up?  
Notice how many questions Socrates asks of his companions. This is an approach to argument that is known as the "Socratic Method." Watch the following video on the Socratic method and consider how you have seen Socrates employ this strategy thus far in the text:  (This annotation contains a video)
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Refer to the previous annotation to watch the video on the Socratic method. How has Socrates employed the techniques of questioning, as outlined in the video, in this text thus far? What is your reaction to the Socratic method? Do you think this is an effective approach to considering a new argument? Provide at least two examples from the text to support your analysis.  
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Which of the following statements best summarizes Socrates' refutation of Polemarchus' definition of justice as it is presented in the highlighted lines?  
Notice Socrates' use of analogy and hypothetical situations. An analogy is a comparison between two things in order to clarify a point. A hypothetical situation is an imagined or "supposed" situation. What do you think... Are these effective tactics in argumentation? 
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What literary device does Plato employ in the highlighted lines? 
Watch the following video on denotations and connotations. What does the connotation associated with "roared" tell you about Thrasymachus' disposition?  (This annotation contains a video)
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Examine the connotations and diction of Socrates' dialogue. How would you characterize Socrates' overall tone in "arguing" with his companions?  
Socrates argues that, based on Thrasymachus' definition of justice, people would lack the motivation to be just, since acting justly would only benefit others (not one's self). What is your reaction to Socrates' counter-argument as it is presented in the highlighted lines? Do you agree or disagree?  
What do you think Socrates means by his expression, "I might as well shave a lion"? 
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In his first inaugural address in 1801, Thomas Jefferson called for, "Equal and exact justice to all men, of whatever persuasion, religious or political." Although a bold statement, even Jefferson does not offer his definition of justice here. Consider Jefferson's remarks as well as what you know about the American justice system. What do you think is the United States' definition of justice?  
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Which of the following is the best definition of the word "upset" as it is used in the context of the highlighted sentence?  
Notice the structure and length of this paragraph. Prior to this, most of the text is broken into short, brief sentences and exchanges between speakers. What is the effect of this structural shift?  
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What does the author imply with his use of the simile "like a bath-man, deluged our ears with his words"?  
An exclamatory sentence is a sentence that ends in an exclamation point. This is typically employed to add emotion or to show emphasis. What is the purpose of the exclamatory sentence in the highlighted line?  
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According to the highlighted paragraph, what does Socrates believe a ruler requires as a form of payment?  
Consider the argument presented in this paragraph. Do you agree or disagree with this viewpoint? 
What an interesting theory... What do you think? Would a "just man try to gain any advantage over the just?" Have you ever seen this happen in your own life? 
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Take a moment to to pause and review Thrasymachus' point of view. Summarize Thrasymachus' central argument as it has been presented in the text thus far. Do you agree or disagree with Thrasymachus' point of view? Provide at least two examples from the text to support your analysis.  
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What strategy does Socrates employ to emphasize his argument in the highlighted lines?  
Observe the diction here, particularly the details about Thrasymachus' "reluctance" and "blushing." What is the purpose of these details? 
Notice the diction here... How would you characterize the attitude of each of these characters, Socrates and Thrasymachus?  
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Based on his statements in the highlighted paragraph, with which statement would Socrates likely agree?  
It seems, with these examples, that Socrates is striving to point out that every organ or device has a specific purpose. Why do you think he's presenting these facts? 
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Which of the following best summarizes Socrates' conclusion about justice thus far?  
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Refer to the previous annotation to watch the video on ethos, logos, and pathos. In your opinion, which character has employed these techniques most effectively in Part One of The Republic? Which of the appeals do you find to be the most effective? Provide at least one example from the text to support your explanation.  
Ethos, logos, and pathos (also known as the "rhetorical triangle") are techniques that are employed in argumentation and persuasion. Watch the following video on ethos, logos, and pathos... Have any of the speakers in The Republic employed these persuasive techniques?  (This annotation contains a video)

The Republic Part 2

Why might Plato describe Glaucon as "pugnacious"? What does that tell you about his character?  
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Based on his explanation, in what "class" does Socrates place justice?  
Socrates notes Glaucon's thorough enthusiasm in expressing his argument. What do you think of Glaucon's argument thus far?  
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Take a moment to review Glaucon's argument about justice. Summarize his main points and opinions of justice. Provide at least two examples from Book Two to support your explanation. 
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According to the argument in the highlighted paragraph, what does Adeimantus believe is a motivation for someone to act justly?  
Notice the request to have Socrates speak about justice with evidence from "prose writers." This implies that justice is too often asserted in a poetic, perhaps idealized manner. The request for "prose" (or non-poetry) is a request for more concrete, real-world examples of justice.  
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Based on his argument thus far, with which statement would Adeimantus likely agree?  
Socrates asserts that Glaucon and Adeimantus are not convinced of their own argument. What do you think of their argument thus far?  
Don't lose sight of the primary focus of Book Two... Socrates reminds us of the main subject in this highlighted line. He is framing for the reader the fact that he will argue the "nature" and "advantages" of "justice and injustice." 
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Why, according to Socrates, will he first outline the arguments pertaining to justice and the State? 
Socrates is giving small examples to build to a larger argument... Where do you think he is headed with these ideas? 
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Based on his argument thus far, and referring to the highlighted lines, what is Socrates attempting to establish in this section of his argument?  
Socrates described an "ideal state" of justice; however, he's now expanding this description... What point do you think he is trying to illustrate?  
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Summarize the central point that Socrates strives to emphasize in the highlighted paragraph.  
Socrates was very methodical in getting to this point of his argument... He points out that, as a State develops, it increases in its desires. What potential dangers can occur when a State "exceeds the limit of necessity"?  
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Based on his descriptions and statements, identify one of the qualities that Socrates declares a "guardian" should possess.  
What is your reaction to this statement? Why do you think Socrates deliberately points out an impossibility in this scenario? 
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Why does Socrates declare that a dog is "a true philosopher"?  
Homer, whose bust is pictured below, is a famous Greek poet and writer, perhaps best known for his works The Iliad and The Odyssey.  (This annotation contains an image)
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Why does Adeimantus agree that these stories are "extremely objectionable"?  
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What is Socrates' explanation for the notion that they could not blame God for any evils?  
Zeus was considered to be the "father" of all other gods and men.  (This annotation contains an image)
Observe how Socrates aims to establish a principle here. What might be his motivation for doing this? 
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Explain Socrates' argument regarding why literature should be censored in this hypothetical State. In your opinion, is his argument sound? Why or why not?  
Adeimantus has generally agreed with Socrates throughout Book Two. How might you respond to Socrates here?  
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With what argument or statement does Adeimantus agree in this line? 

The Republic Part 3

You may be feeling like this conversation has gotten a bit off track... Just as a reminder, the core focus still rests on the exploration of justice and virtue. To examine this, recall that Socrates said he'd first examine the issue of justice in the larger perspective (examining the State). With this, Book Three sets us up to explore the notion, "What makes a person virtuous?" To answer this, Socrates will focus on what makes a great warrior.  
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What is the justification for censoring poetry and literature, as described in the highlighted lines?  
In order to promote bravery in their warriors, Socrates argues that they should not mourn the loss of a loved one, as death should not be seen as a negative consequence. What do you think of this statement?  
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According to the highlighted paragraph, why should rulers be permitted to lie?  
Click the following link to review The United States' Bill of Rights, paying close attention to the first amendment. How does Socrates' statements regarding censorship and speech contradict the freedoms established in the Bill of Rights?  (This annotation contains a link)
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Refer to the previous annotation to review the United States' Bill of Rights. Evaluate Socrates' arguments regarding censorship and free speech in contrast to the freedoms established in the Bill of Rights. How do these two contrasting views differ? What are the potential dangers in Socrates' statements regarding a censored society? Provide at least two examples from each text to support your analysis.  
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What potential danger does Socrates perceive in allowing the young future-warriors to read epic poems and tales, such as those written by Homer?   
Watch the following video on mood and tone. Although this text, as it is a philosophical dialogue, does not have a strong mood, each speaker certainly expresses a tone as he proposes his ideas. What do you think of Socrates' tone here?  (This annotation contains a video)
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What does Socrates mean by the question "Do I take you with me?" as it is used in the context of the highlighted paragraph? 
Why do you think Socrates brings up the issue of imitation here? What is the point of this section of the discussion? 
What do you think of these statements? Do you, as Socrates proposes, imitate people or actions in things that you read?  
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Which of the following literary devices is present in the highlighted lines?  
Do you recall the persuasive appeals (ethos, logos, pathos) from one of the annotations in Book One? When Socrates entreats his companion with the words "my friend," which persuasive appeal is he likely striving to employ? Is this an effective technique in persuasion / argumentation?  
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What types of music does Socrates argue are necessary?  
Reflect on wars, particularly World War II, in which leaders also sought to "purge" a State (country) of people or ideas. Although Socrates' arguments are theoretical, and likely not intended to be taken literally into real-life action, what potential dangers or flaws do you see in these proposals?  
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Socrates has spent some time evaluating the various types of music and instruments that should exist in this theorized State. What is his justification for only allowing certain music, instruments, and meter? What is your reaction to this?    
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Why does Socrates assert that musical training, particularly rhythm and harmony, are important?  
Notice the use of the dash here, and then watch the following quick video on the explanation of the rhetorical purpose of a dash. Based on the information from this video, what is the purpose and effect of the dashes used in these highlighted lines?  (This annotation contains a video)
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Based on the context clues, what does Socrates likely mean by his use of the word "gymnastic"? 
Do you agree that this is a "ridiculous" idea? 
Keep in mind that The Republic was written around 380 BC. Are you surprised to learn that there was such a thing as a "professional athlete" at this time? What type of athlete do you envision? How might he or she be different from the professional athletes that we see in our world today? 
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How does Plato add emphasis to the highlighted line?  
Phocylides, born around 540 BC, was a Greek poet.  
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Which syntactical device does Plato employ in the highlighted paragraph? 
Do you agree with Socrates' statement here? 
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Describe the overall lifestyle that Socrates proposes for the guardians. How has this argument developed and / or changed over the course of Book Three? Provide at least three examples from the text to support your explanation.  
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What two qualities does Socrates suggest the guardians should possess?  
This is a common belief, that the older should "rule" the younger. Do you agree with this? Can you think of instances where this may not be the ideal case? Why or why not? 
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To whom or what does Socrates refer when he declares "there must be a selection"? 
Compare the guardians to our own modern day soldiers. Do you think our society employs any of these strategies or practices? 
Do you agree that this is the way in which rulers and guardians should be "chosen and appointed," as Socrates describes? Why or why not? 
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To whom or what does the word "her" refer in the highlighted lines?  
Why does Socrates declare that the guardians must have houses of "soldiers" and not "shop-keepers"? Do you agree with his ideas here? 
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In Socrates' ideal State, he does not place much emphasis on personal freedoms. How does this contrast with the general attitudes and beliefs in modern American society? What are some of the flaws or problems with Socrates' proposed state? What might be some of the benefits? Provide at least two examples from the text to support your analysis.  
Quiz 1 

The Republic Part 4

Adeimantus asks a reasonable question here: how can people in this theorized society be happy without luxuries that make us happy in our own lives? Do you think you could be happy in Socrates' proposed society?  
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Based on Socrates' statements in the previous paragraph, with which statement would he most likely agree?  
How does the use of the exclamatory sentence here influence your perception of the speaker's tone?  
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How does Socrates clarify his argument in the highlighted paragraph? 
Do you agree that "good men" do not need to have laws imposed upon them?  
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Why does Plato add an exclamation point to the response "Charming!" in the highlighted line?  
Apollo, illustrated below in sculpted form, was the God of music, poetry, art, oracles, archery, plague, medicine, sun, light and knowledge.  (This annotation contains an image)
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Refer to the previous annotation to watch the video on context clues. Based on the context clues provided, what does Socrates mean by the word "counsel" in the highlighted lines?  
Use the dictionary tool to look up the word "counsel." Does the dictionary definition match the intended meaning as it is used in the context of this sentence? Watch the following video on context clues to hep determine what Socrates means with the use of this word.  (This annotation contains a video)
What an interesting idea... Do you agree that courage can be a "kind of salvation"?  
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How does Socrates help clarify his argument in the highlighted paragraph? 
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Which of the following words could correctly replace the word "temperance" as it is used in the context of the highlighted line? 
Figurative language is language that is not meant to be taken literally. Figurative language includes, for example, the use of metaphor and simile. Can you identify the figurative language in the highlighted lines? What is the effect of the language here?  
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What is Plato's purpose in having Socrates explore the "four qualities" mentioned in this line?    
Socrates provides the reader with another analogy and example here. Do you find this tactic helpful in further understanding his argument(s)? Why or why not? 
To clarify what's happening here, Socrates is striving to return to the focus of questioning how justice appears in an individual. Since he is using the State (city) as the vehicle to approach this question, he suggests that justice in the State (city) consists of three classes. As such, he must now find the equivalent of these three classes within an individual. This, again, is all in an effort to refocus this philosophical debate back to the principal theme of justice.  
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Take a moment to evaluate the structure of Socrates' argument. Do you think it is effective to approach the discussion of justice from the analysis of the State (large scale) to the analysis of the individual (small scale)? Do these two comparisons align? Why or why not?  
Why do you think Socrates brings up these opposites here? What is the purpose of these examples? 
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Which of the following statements summarizes Socrates' argument in the highlighted paragraph? 
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What are the "two principles existing in the soul"?  
Socrates will identify a third principle of the soul... What do you think this third principle will explore? 
Keep in mind that Socrates already established that the city has three classes; therefore, he will strive to align the comparison so that the individual (soul) has three principles.  
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Evaluate the comparisons drawn between the State and the individual here. Do these comparisons align? Why or why not?  
To what "dream" does Socrates refer here? 
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Socrates declares they have identified the "just man." Which of the following best meets this description? 
Keep in mind that Socrates believes that harmony in the soul leads to justice; therefore, what do you think he will argue causes injustice?  
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Evaluate Socrates' definition of justice in the individual (soul). Do you agree or disagree with his definition? Provide at least two examples to support your explanation. 
Do you need some help clarifying the main points of this text thus far? If so, watch the following video on Books One through Four of The Republic. Check your comprehension as you watch the video... Are there any central moments of the text that you need to revisit for clarification? (This annotation contains a video)

The Republic Part 5

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What does this opening paragraph suggest will be Socrates' focus in this next section? 
What do you think Socrates means when he asks "to look for gold, or to hear discourse?" 
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What is the "inference" referenced in this line?  
Observe the exclamatory sentence here. What tone or emotion might Plato want to emphasize with this syntactical choice?  
Look carefully at what Socrates will later state about the differences between men and women. Although he argues that they should be educated in the same manner, he also asserts that in all general ways, women are inferior to men.  
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What does Socrates mean with the words "verbal opposition"? 
Do you agree with Socrates' statements regarding the fundamental difference between men and women? Why or why not? 
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What does the word "constitution" mean as it is used in the context of this sentence? Based on its meaning in this context, use the word "constitution" in a sentence of your own.  
How do you think most people would react to this view during Plato's time?  
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Why does Socrates believe that men and women would both benefit from the same education as guardians?  
Socrates is proposing that the society, in particular the guardians, view each other as a common family. What might be the advantages and disadvantages of this notion? 
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What literary technique does Plato utilize in the highlighted lines?  
Review the United States' laws on marriage by visiting Cornell University Law School's Legal Information Institute page, provided below. How do Socrates' propositions of marriage regulation contrast with the United States' marriage laws? (This annotation contains a link)
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Refer to the previous annotation to review information regarding the United States' laws on marriage. Evaluate Socrates propositions regarding the "regulations of marriages and births." Based on the current U.S. laws, would his proposals be legal in the American society today? Why or why not? Provide at least one example from each text (The Republic and the Cornell University webpage) to support your analysis.  
Once again, reflect on examples of modern history when a society (or leader) attempted to "purify" a population. Specifically, consider the actions of Hitler in Nazi Germany. Do you recognize any dangers in Socrates' propositions here?  
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According to Socrates' argument, what is one of the benefits of a "common family" in the "well ordered state"?  
Do you recall the video annotation from Book One that explained denotations and connotations? What are the connotations associated with "ruler" versus "master"?  
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According to Socrates, how will guardians be paid?  
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Communism is a socioeconomic system that is based upon common and communal ownership of the means of production. In a communist society, a lack of personal ownership is intended to eliminate differing social classes while instilling social order. Based on what you know about communism, do you think Socrates' proposals, as outlined in Book Five thus far, align with communist practices? Why or why not?    
Do you agree that "shame and fear" can guide our behavior? 
Do you think the comparisons often drawn between humans and other animals are fair and reasonable? Why or why not?  
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What would be the "wings" that children would have in order to "fly away and escape" a dangerous situation?  
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According to this paragraph, what "reward" would make a guardian "more eager to win the prize of valour"? 
Ajax, shown below in sculpted form, was a hero of Greek mythology. In Homer's the Iliad, he is described as being a strong warrior.  (This annotation contains an image)
The "Hellenes" refer to an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, Anatolia, Southern Italy and other proximate regions.  
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Why does Socrates propose that they should avoid devastating the lands and burning the houses of the Hellenes? 
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What does Socrates mean by the words "loiter" and "raid" in the context of this paragraph?  
Once again, Socrates tries to refocus the conversation on the topics of justice and injustice. Continue to focus on these themes as the conversation often shifts in various directions.  
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What is the purpose of the exchange in the highlighted paragraphs? 
What is meant by the line "beg of you to assist my memory"? 
What do you think of the definition of "true philosophers" here? Based on this definition, would you be considered a "true philosopher"? Why or why not? 
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What is the purpose of the content in this paragraph in the larger scope of this section of the argument?  
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Define, in your own words, what Socrates means with the use of the word "faculty" as it is used in the context of this sentence. With this definition of the word, use the word "faculty" in a sentence of your own. 
Note this unique diction... Have you ever seen the word "opine" before? Use the dictionary tool to clarify this word, as well as any other challenging words, as you continue to read through this text.  
What is meant by the words "darker" and "lighter" in the context of this sentence?  
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In Book Five, Socrates divides society / existence into three distinct classes. Identify these three classes. What is your reaction to this perspective? Cite at least three examples from Book Five to support your analysis.  

The Republic Part 6

Socrates has argued that philosophers, as they are knowledgeable, will best know how to govern the State. As such, he will now argue how to determine which philosophers are virtuous enough to lead.  
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Socrates clarifies his argument by utilizing which of the following literary techniques?  
Do you agree that a "true philosopher" would be able to ignore or "hardly feel" bodily pleasure?  
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What is the purpose of Adeimantus' "interposed" comments here?  
Note the interesting word choice. What connotations are associated with the word "plunged"? Why do you think Socrates chose this word here? 
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Summarize Socrates' arguments regarding philosophers and society as presented in Book Six thus far. Provide at least three examples from the text to support your answer.  
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What does Socrates argue are a philosopher's "natural gifts"? 
Interesting idea... Do you agree that "goods of life," such as "beauty" and "wealth" "have a corrupting and distracting effect"? Why or why not?  
Watch the following video titled "The History of Argument in Under Four Minutes." This video will clarify the context of this discussion, as well as illuminate the roles of "Sophists" during this time period.  (This annotation contains a video)
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How does Socrates clarify his argument in the highlighted lines? 
Do you understand what Socrates means with this question? What is he concerned would happen to a "true philosopher" in this State?  
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To whom or what does the pronoun "her" refer to in the highlighted passage?  
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Socrates declares, "The causes why philosophy is in such an evil name have now been sufficiently explained: the injustice of the charges against her has been shown." Using at least two examples from the text, summarize the argument that precedes this statement. What does he mean by this line?  
This line may be considered an aphorism. an aphorism is a brief, often witty, statement or truth about life. Do you agree with this aphorism?  
What do you think of the connotations associated with "coldly." Why might Plato have included this word here?  
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Based on his arguments in the highlighted paragraph, with which statement would Socrates likely agree?  
What do you think Socrates means by "divine order"? 
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Which of the following lines best summarizes what Socrates means when he says "they will often turn their eyes upwards and downwards"?  
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Examine the context clues in the highlighted line. To whom or what does Socrates refer when stating "veiled her face"?  
An interesting thought here... Consider your own personality (or your friends' and family members'). Do you agree that these qualities "do not often grow together"? 
Make a prediction... What do you think is this "highest knowledge" to which Socrates has referred?  
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Summarize Socrates' statements on "good" in this section. Provide at least two examples from the text to support your response.  
Another interesting thought here. Apply this concept to your own life... Do you agree or disagree?  
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Which statement best summarizes the highlighted dialogue?  
Do you think Socrates is being literal here, or could these statements about "sight" and "light" also have a figurative / symbolic meaning?  
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How does Socrates frame his argument in the highlighted paragraph?  
Re-read this paragraph if necessary... Socrates is introducing an important metaphor here.  
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Summarize Socrates' closing metaphor about the "line." (Refer to the previous annotation to read the initial statements regarding this topic). What is the meaning of this metaphor? Provide at least three examples from the text to support your explanation.  

The Republic Part 7

Socrates is going to introduce the famous "Allegory of the Cave" here. An allegory is a story, poem, or image that carries a hidden or underlining lesson (generally a moral or political lesson). As you read, look for the underlying message or lesson with this allegory.  
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According to the highlighted paragraphs, what does Socrates describe happening to the prisoner who is suddenly released from the cave?  
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To whom or what does the word "he" refer in the highlighted paragraph?  
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Refer to the previous annotation to watch the video interpretation of the "Allegory of the Cave." Compare the video to the text. How does the video interpretation highlight the central message of the allegory? Provide at least two examples to support your analysis.  
Watch a brief animated rendition of the "Allegory of the Cave" by clicking the link below.  (This annotation contains a video)
Which moment in the "Allegory of the Cave" likely represents the process of education?  
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According to the highlighted paragraph, what does Socrates assert makes for a "worse" State?  
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According to the highlighted paragraph, how should the State provide for future rulers?  
See the continued reference to the opening allegory? What does Socrates mean by "darkness to light" here? 
In Greek mythology, Palamedes is a prince of Nauplia; he is said to have led the Nauplians in the Trojan War. View an Rembrandt's artistic interpretation of Palamedes below:  (This annotation contains an image)
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What is the purpose of the discussion in this section?  
Does this notion of the "visible" and "intelligible" still connect to the "Allegory of the Cave"? Why or why not?  
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Why does Socrates believe that arithmetic is an essential study for future rulers?   
This is an interesting observation. Do you agree with Socrates' statement here? Why or why not? 
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Summarize Socrates' arguments for teaching arithmetic to future leaders. How has his thinking on this subject evolved over the course of Book Seven? Provide at least three examples from the text to support your answer.  
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What does Socrates declare is "more precious far than ten thousand bodily eyes"? 
What do you think Socrates means with the words "downwards" and "upwards" here? Do these words carry figurative (as well as literal) meanings?  
In Greek mythology, Daedalus was a talented artist and craftsman.  
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Which of the following syntactical features are present in the highlighted paragraph?  
Do you agree that dialectic is an important course of study? Why or why not? Note: If needed, use the dictionary tool to look up the definition of dialectic.  
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Take a moment to review the conversation on dialectic. Summarize the arguments made for the justification of studying dialectic. Do you agree or disagree with the arguments presented? Provide at least two textual examples to support your response.  
Do you agree that these qualities are important in a strong leader? Do you believe all of these qualities are entirely necessary in a leader? Why or why not?  
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What does the speaker mean by "of another stamp" in the highlighted paragraph? 
Have you noticed how the speakers often refer to philosophy with the feminine pronoun "she" or "her," as evident in the highlighted paragraph? Why do you think the author made this rhetorical choice?  
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Based on the statements made in the highlighted lines, with which statement would Socrates likely agree?  
Notice the simile comparing "youngsters" to "puppy-dogs." Do you agree with the comparison and argument here? What does this statement tell you about Socrates' opinions regarding a person's self-control?  
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Considering the arguments in the highlighted paragraph, with which statement would Socrates likely agree?  
Before wrapping up this section of the text, review your understanding of Books Five through Seven by watching the following video summary. Are there any moments in these previous sections of the text that you need to revisit for clarification?  (This annotation contains a video)
Quiz 2 
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Reflect back on what you've learned and read in Book Seven. Why did Plato choose to include an allegory, instead of just a straight forward and literal discussion, in this chapter? How did the allegory enhance the messages and meanings in Book Seven? Provide at least three examples from the text to support your analysis.  

The Republic Part 8

This is a very helpful statement! Here, Socrates summarizes all of the main conclusions reached thus far.  
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Considering the overall patterns of The Republic thus far, what is the likely purpose of the highlighted lines? 
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Which of the following could replace the word "constitution" as it is used in the context of the highlighted lines? 
What is the significance of the statements regarding gold, silver, brass, and iron here?  
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How does Socrates clarify his statements in the highlighted paragraph? 
According to the modern dictionary, Timocracy has two definitions: 1. A form of government wherein one must possess property in order to hold office / serve as a leader. 2. A form of government wherein ambition and/or love of honor are the motivating factors for leaders. 
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Summarize Socrates' criticism of Timocracy and the Timocratic man. Provide at least three examples from the text to support your response.  
Use the dictionary tool to look up the definition of oligarchy. Can you think of any examples of oligarchy in history? 
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Based on the evolution of his argument here, which of the following qualities would Socrates likely blame for the failure of Timocracy?  
Consider this statement. Do you think that a lack of education, ill-training, and an "evil constitution" are the contributing factors of "paupers" (people living in poverty) today?  
Note the description of a Timocratic man in the subsequent paragraphs.  
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According to the highlighted statements, what happens to the "ambitious youth" in this state?  
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According to the arguments presented, what does Socrates declares is one of the failures of the oligarchy?  
Do you agree with this statement that a "love of wealth" and "spirit of moderation" cannot coexist? Why or why not? 
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Which of the following rhetorical devices is present in the highlighted paragraph?  
Consider the United States' democratic evolution. Do you agree that this process, as described in the highlighted paragraph, is how democracy came "into being"? 
Consider the "unnecessary pleasures" in our own lives (games, entertainment, fancy cars, cell phones, etc). Do you think that we are "slave(s) of unnecessary desires"? Why or why not? 
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What, according to the speaker, restores order to "the young man's soul"? 
Critically examine your own life and the general lives of people in the United States democracy. Do you think Socrates' description of the "democratic man" here is accurate? Why or why not?  
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What, according to his statements thus far, does Socrates assert is a "democratic man"? Do you agree with his definition? 
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Which "insatiable desire," according to the highlighted lines, is the "dissolution" of democracy?  
Do you think freedom brings about disrespect within families?  
What does Socrates declare are "plagues of every city?"  
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Examine the United States' society and work force. Which of the following is likely a component of the "third class," as referenced in the highlighted lines?  
Pay attention to the "Tale of the Arcadian Temple of Lycaean" here. Consider the purpose of this tale as you read this section of the text.  
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Summarize the "Tale of the Arcadian Temple of Lycaean." What was the purpose of this tale? How does this tale connect to the arguments presented in Book Eight?  
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Why does Socrates compare the tyrant to a physician here?  
What does the word "pregnant" mean in the context of this line? Why did Plato choose this word here? 
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Refer to the subsequent annotation to read James Madison's Federalist Paper Number 49. Compare Plato's critiques of Democracy (as presented by Socrates and his companions) to Madison's view of Democracy in the United States. How do their views differ? Which speaker presents a more convincing argument? Provide at least two examples from each text to support your analysis.  
Plato and his associates argued that, since people tend to act on emotion instead of reason, the common man cannot be trusted. This is why, among other reasons presented in Book Eight, Socrates argues that Democracy is a flawed system of government. In his text Federalist Paper Number 49, James Madison addresses some of Plato's critiques of Democracy while outlining how the Constitution will solve some of the potential problems that Plato presents. Read the full text of Madison's Federalist Paper Number 49 below:  (This annotation contains a link)
Plato and his associates argued that, since people tend to act on emotion instead of reason, the common man cannot be trusted. This is why, among other reasons presented in Book Eight, Socrates argues that Democracy is a flawed system of government. In his text Federalist Paper Number 49, James Madison addresses some of Plato's critiques of Democracy while outlining how the Constitution will solve some of the potential problems that Plato presents. Read the full text of Madison's Federalist Paper Number 49 below:  (This annotation contains a link)

The Republic Part 9

Can you think of any people (celebrities, politicians, etc) that fit the example described here?  
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Examine the context clues in the highlighted line. Based on the context, which of the following words could replace the term "generated" in this sentence?  
Do you think the term "blessing" is being used in a literal or figurative sense here?  
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Why does a tyrant never experience "true" friendship?  
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Based on these highlighted statements, the Philosopher King and the tyrant are considered to be opposites. Based on the arguments presented in Book Nine--as well as throughout The Republic as a whole--in what ways are the tyrant and the Philosopher King different? Provide at least three specific examples to support your explanation.  
Do you find it surprising that a tyrant, who is described as submitting to everything he desires, is considered to be the most miserable in society?  
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Examine the connotations in the highlighted line. Which of the following words from this excerpt convey the most negative connotations? 
Review this paragraph if needed... Why might the "master" be "in the utmost fear" in this scenario? 
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Make an inference. Based on this description, which person would Socrates likely consider to be the happiest?  
As you read this section, take note of the "three desires and governing powers."  
Do you recall the "three individuals" to which Socrates refers here? Go back, if needed, to identify the three types of people that Socrates has identified.  
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Which of the parts of the soul is the "pleasantest" of the three?  
This is an interesting idea... Do you agree that pleasure is, perhaps, just the "cessation of pain" or is it something different entirely?  
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How does Socrates clarify his argument here?  
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In your own words, summarize the argument presented in the highlighted paragraph. Do you agree or disagree with these statements? Why? 
What do you think Socrates means by "light and shade" here?  
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What does Socrates mean by "the whole soul" in the highlighted line?  
Think of potential examples of "tyrants" in society today or throughout history. Do you think that it is true that "tyrants" are the most unhappy? Why or why not?  
With this line, Socrates is bringing the conversation back to one of the original issues presented in the text. Read closely as he explores this question in the subsequent pages.  
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Identify one of the "three" implied by the line "let the three grow into one." 
Do you think that "luxury and softness" can "weaken" a person?  
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According to his discussion in Book Nine, with which statement would Socrates agree?  
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According to the arguments of Book Nine, how should a person live a good and happy life? Provide at least two textual examples to support your response.  

The Republic Part 10

You are now in the final book of The Republic. How do you think Socrates and his companions will close their discussion? 
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Who are the "three of them" referenced in the highlighted line?  
What do you think of Socrates' attitude towards artists and poets?  
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Why does Socrates argue that an artist is "a long way off the truth"? 
Do you ever encounter people like the "man who knows all the arts" described here? What is your reaction to Socrates' opinion of such man?  
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Socrates has made it quite clear that he does not look favorably upon artists or poets. Consider, however, Pablo Picasso's statement, "Art is the lie that enables us to realize the truth." How might Socrates respond to this line? Provide at least one example from the text to support your response.  
Socrates calls painters "imitators." How do you think he'd respond to more realistic artistic mediums that did not exist during his time period, such as photography?  
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Based on his statements, which of the following words would Socrates likely agree best describes artists and "imitators"?  
How has Socrates shown that imitation is "thrice removed from the truth"?  
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Based on the context clues in the highlighted sentences, which of the following words best defines the term "faculty" as it is used in this excerpt?  
Reflect on your own experiences. Do you agree or disagree that it is "best" to be "patient under suffering"? 
What is your reaction... Do you think poetry has the power to harm "even the good"? Why or why not? 
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Why does Socrates oppose poetry and dramatic stories?  
Observe how this section has gradually shifted to include much longer paragraphs. Why do you think Plato structured the section in this manner? What is the effect? 
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What does "attending" mean in the context of this sentence?  
Socrates is attempting to prove a pretty bold claim here (that the soul cannot perish). Do you think he effectively breaks down the complexity of this argument?  
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Summarize the "conclusion" regarding the immortality of the soul as presented by Socrates.  
Note the contrasting positive and negative connotations in the diction here. What is the effect of the word choice in this passage? 
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What, according to the highlighted paragraph, is "best for the soul in her own nature"? 
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Which of the following words in the highlighted passage carry the most negative connotations?  
Socrates will conclude his thoughts by telling the "Myth of Er" in this section. Pay attention to the purpose and meaning of this myth.  
Can you summarize the events of this myth so far? If not, go back and re-read portions that are unclear. This myth is important to understanding Socrates' closing arguments and ideas. 
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According to this myth, where are "unjust" souls sent?  
Quiz 3 
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Summarize the Myth of Er, presented in the closing section of Book Ten. Why do you think Plato includes this myth in the closing portion of his text? What is the purpose and effect of this choice?  
Once again, watch the following video summary to check your comprehension of Books Eight through Ten. Revisit any section of the text in which you need to clarify the central ideas.  (This annotation contains a video)