The Cold War
The “dean of Cold War historians” (The New York Times) now presents the definitive account of the global confrontation that dominated the last half of the twentieth century. Drawing on newly opened archives and the reminiscences of the major players, John Lewis Gaddis explains not just what happened but why—from the months in 1945 when the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. went from alliance to antagonism to the barely averted holocaust of the Cuban Missile Crisis to the maneuvers of Nixon and Mao, Reagan and Gorbachev. Brilliant, accessible, almost Shakespearean in its drama, The Cold War stands as a triumphant summation of the era that, more than any other, shaped our own.
The curriculet is being added to your library
The map below illustrates the location of the Scottish island of Jura. (This annotation contains an image)
Watch the video below to learn more about the novel titled, "1984." If you have not read 1984, you will want to watch the video to understand the next few paragraphs. (This annotation contains a video)
CHAPTER ONE - THE RETURN OF FEAR
Identify the statement below that best describes the sentiments of both of these soldiers.
Before you read you should note that this book is a non-fiction text. This means that the text is an account of facts related to the history of the Cold War. The author uses the facts to develop claims about why the Cold War started and ended. Pay attention to his claims and make sure to pause to reflect on the way he uses evidence to support his claims.
To preview the topic of this non-fiction text and to learn more about the Cold War, visit the link below and explore some of the topics featured in this website. (This annotation contains a link)
World War II changed the lives of people across the globe. Visit the link below to view primary source photographs that illustrate various experiences of individuals and communities after World War II. (This annotation contains a link)
To learn more about the events leading up to the Cold War, and the Cold War itself, watch the video below. (This annotation contains a video)
Stalin is a significant figure in the Cold War. Visit the link below to learn more about Stalin and his role as the leader of the Soviet Union. (This annotation contains a link)
Stalin believed that after the threat of Hitler was eradicated that
Did you know that you can look up words that are not familiar to you by using the Define feature in Curriculet? You simply need to highlight any word and click on "Define". Use this feature as often as possible to increase your comprehension!
The author claims that Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin wanted to not only cooperate to defeat Hitler's Germany during World War II, but to also
Use the Define feature to look up the word unilateralism. Then, find a synonym of the word unilateralism from the list below.
Watch the video below to learn more about the development and use of the atomic bomb. (This annotation contains a video)
Roosevelt and Churchill's primary goal described in this passage was to
Why did Kennan believe that Soviet leaders had to treat other countries as hostile enemies?
The Truman Doctrine plays a significant role in the history of the Cold War. Watch this short video on the Truman Doctrine to understand the implications of this critical policy. (This annotation contains a video)
Stalin's reaction to Truman's speech can best be described as _____________.
The author argues that the intention of the Marshall Plan was to
The Soviet Union figured out how to make the atomic bomb
Mao was the leader of ___________.
To learn more about the significance of The Korean War and modern implications of this invasion, watch this short video below. (This annotation contains a video)
The image below is a picture of Joseph McCarthy. McCarthy became notorious for his efforts to identify Americans who sympathized with communism. (This annotation contains an image)
Both the United States and the Soviet Union occupied ___________ at the end of World War II.
According to this paragraph, Americans withdrew troops from South Korea because
Stalin's tone in this passage is best described as ___________.
After WWII, the victors felt ____________.
Review the circumstances surrounding the victory of the United States and their allies in World War II by watching this short documentary. (This annotation contains a video)
How does the Shakespearean quote that Kennan uses demonstrate his main concerns with the United States' actions leading up to the Cold War?
CHAPTER TWO - DEATHBOATS AND LIFEBOATS
The main objective of the United States during the Korean War was to
The invention of atomic bombs caused
Think about the concerns that Carl von Clausewitz brings up in this paragraph. Do you agree with his assertion that states can become "victims of war if weapons ever become so destructive that they placed at risk the purposes for which wars were being fought"?
What evidence suggests that Truman may have struggled with his decision to use the atomic bomb on Japan?
In August 1949 the Soviet Union gained
NATO stands for "North Atlantic Treaty Organization." This is an alliance that exists even to this day and includes the countries in the chart below. (This annotation contains an image)
The image below is a picture of the mushroom cloud that was documented in the Pacific on March 1, 1954. Imagine witnessing the explosion of this weapon. How do you think having access to this type of weapon impacted the United States' relationship with the Soviet Union? (This annotation contains an image)
What rationale does Churchhill give for his change of mind regarding the United States monopoly on atomic weapons?
The footage below is a rare clip of Khrushchev's visit to the United States in 1959. Think about why his visit would generate so much attention. (This annotation contains a video)
The Russians did not shoot down the American U-2 spy plane that flew over Moscow and Leningrad because
The following video is a primary source from the Cuban missile crisis. It is a video of Kennedy addressing the nation regarding the situation in Cuba. Imagine living through this event. Is Kennedy's speech effective at establishing a sense of security in the tumultuous times? (This annotation contains a video)
America viewed Russia's behavior as _____________ during the Cuban missile crisis.
The video below is a preview of the film made from the novel "Life of Pi." Do you think this is an adequate metaphor for the Cold War? (This annotation contains a video)
CHAPTER THREE - COMMAND VERSUS SPONTANEITY
In what specific ways did the U.S.S.R. not meet the vision that Khrushchev laid out for it? Cite evidence from the text to support your response.
Compare and contrast the sentiments of Benjamin Disraeli to Karl Marx. What similarities do they share?
To learn more about Karl Marx, watch the short video below. Based on this video, what influence do you think Marx had on Soviet policy? (This annotation contains a video)
Lenin wanted to ___________ capitalism.
The image below shows Henry A. Wallace (to the left) with Roosevelt (to the right). Why do you think Wallace's inability to make up his mind was an issue for him in office? (This annotation contains an image)
According to the author, F.D.R. sought to bring _________ and Lenin together.
To learn more about Churchill's role during the Cold War, watch this short video below. (This annotation contains a video)
The image below shows "kulaks" being forced to move from their home. Imagine how this experience impacted the individuals who experienced it. Would they be sympathetic to the movement Stalin was trying to promote? (This annotation contains an image)
The author argues that Stalin stayed in power through the use of _________.
The differences between East Germany and West Germany were extreme. Review the footage below from the time period to gain a sense of understanding about the differences between these two regions. Why do you think these differences existed? (This annotation contains a video)
Explain the impact that Khrushchev's comments regarding Stalin's crimes had in both the United States and in Eastern Europe.
The image below shows rioters in East Berlin throwing stones at a tank. This iconic image captures the frustration and discontent that Eastern Berliners had towards the Soviet regime. (This annotation contains an image)
Individuals who were leaving East Berlin were primarily __________________.
CHAPTER FOUR - THE EMERGENCE OF AUTONOMY
Explain what Khrushev's comment indicates about Stalin and his use of terror during the time he was in power.
The video below is the Disney version of the Alice and Wonderland scene described in this passage. Think about why the author uses this example to convey the changes in power that were occurring at this time. (This annotation contains a video)
Why did "third world" states decide not to align with either major power in the Cold War? Cite evidence from the text to support your response.
Look at the image of the map of the Suez Canal. Notice how the location of the canal connects Europe to the Middle East, India, and Southeast Asia. Why would this be such a critical location for super powers to control? (This annotation contains an image)
The phrase "swallowed their scruples" means
The Soviet official's explanation that "we must sometimes overlook their stupidities" gives the reader the sense that the Soviets were not happy with the cult of personality that Kim Il-sung was developing in North Korea. What other inferences can you make from this statement? Watch the video below to learn more about how to use textual evidence to make inferences within a text. (This annotation contains a video)
Johnson's reaction to going to war is best described as being __________.
Consider how Khruschev's relationship with the United States has changed during the period described in the text. Watch the video below to learn more about how characters develop. Realize that while this is a non-fiction text, we can still trace personal development over time. (This annotation contains a video)
Khrushchev claimed that he believed in Mao while Mao was
The image below shows a picture of Mao and de Gaulle in a meeting together. What does this photograph, along with the description of the men in the text, reveal about their relationship? (This annotation contains an image)
What impact did a large amount of young and educated people have on the government's plans?
"Saber-rattling" is a way to say that Moscow was threatening China with military intervention. A saber is a type of sword that is pictured below. (This annotation contains an image)
Nixon's major objectives after coming into office were all of the following except
CHAPTER FIVE - THE RECOVERY OF EQUITY
The events surrounding Watergate were highly controversial. Watergate led to Nixon's eventual resignation. Think about the impact this had on the diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union. Watch the short video below to learn more about this scandal and the aftermath. (This annotation contains a video)
How did the events in Watergate impact the behavior of the Cold War superpowers? Cite evidence from the text to support your response.
Leaders in the United States believed that only ____________ people would vote Communists into office.
This is a photo of the first director of the CIA, Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter. As you read, consider how the role of the CIA changed drastically as a result of the Cold War. (This annotation contains an image)
Why was it difficult for the United States to maintain "plausible deniability"?
The image below shows a photo of the Shah of Iran. As you read, consider how the United States played a role in the rise of the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in Iran. (This annotation contains an image)
The image below shows Salvador Allende speaking to a large crowd. Pay attention to the reasons that Nixon gives for not intervening in the Chilean election. (This annotation contains an image)
The role of the "Plumbers" was to
The image below shows a picture of Kissinger. Pay attention to Kissinger's advice to Nixon in the following passages. Why do you think Kissinger is such a well-known secretary of state? (This annotation contains an image)
What reasons did Kissinger give for cautioning America against "becoming obsessed with stability"?
This is an image of the band "The Plastic People of the Universe." Consider the significance of their arrest in 1976. (This annotation contains an image)
Which of the following actions "began the process by which communism in Poland... would come to an end"?
CHAPTER SIX - ACTORS
In what specific ways could the Cold War be seen as a "long peace"?
Watch the short biography of Ronald Reagan below. Think about how his demeanor and approach towards the Soviet Union was different from Nixon and Johnson's approach. (This annotation contains a video)
The phrase, "Like all good actors, they brought the play at last to an end," is an example of foreshadowing. Learn more about this literary device by watching the video below. Why do you think the author uses the word "play" to describe the Cold War? (This annotation contains a video)
At this time in history there were more
Describing the treaty as "languishing" is an example of personification. Watch the video of personification below. Then, think about why the author uses this feature to describe the treaty. (This annotation contains a video)
In what ways was the Middle East strategically significant to the United States? Cite evidence from the text to support your response.
Click the link below to read a brief synopsis and view pictures of the events in the Iranian Revolution. Think about why these events would be a setback for the United States. (This annotation contains a link)
According to this passage, the war in Afghanistan was __________ motivated.
Pause and reflect on the details the author provides to illustrate that "Moscow was on a roll." Consider how this evidence indicates that the United States was experiencing more challenges than victories in the Cold War.
The author claims that Kissinger was wrong about the Soviet's path to decline. What did Kissinger argue in his memoirs and what was the actual truth?
The author claims that trends are a result of _______________.
The image below shows a picture of the assassination as it happened. Why would the Pope be such a significant target for such an act? (This annotation contains an image)
Reagan argued that Karl Marx foreshadowed the events that were toppling __________________.
Reagan used _______________ to attack the Soviet Union in a speech to the National Association of Evangelicals.
Think about how the events that unfold next indicate that the United States is no longer afraid of the military prowess of the Soviet Union.
The use of the word "malleability" suggests that Gorbachev was willing to negotiate and change based on the circumstances. How is this different from his predecessors?
Gorbachev's actions indicate that he is
The use of the word "performance" aligns with the multiple references to theater that are contained throughout this entire chapter. Think about other examples where theater references are used. Why do you think the author uses this extended metaphor?
Why does Gorbachev agree to cut the Soviet ground force by half a million men?
CHAPTER SEVEN - THE TRIUMPH OF HOPE
What similarities does the author draw between the French Revolution in 1789 and the revolution that led to the creation of the Soviet Union?
Gorbachev's tone in this passage is very pensive and pessimistic. How do you think his attitude impacted his relationship with the United States?
The East Germans threw their identity cards at the police
The image below shows Germans using hammers to begin knocking down the wall. Think about the significance of this image in relation to the Cold War. How could this image be used as evidence to show that the Cold War was ending? (This annotation contains an image)
What was significant about Gorbachev's response?
Reflect on how the crowd's reaction to Gorbachev during this parade is a stark contrast to the way people reacted to previous Soviet leaders. What does this reveal about the state of the Soviet Union?
The fact that the pen Gorbachev was going to use to sign the decree had no ink is an example of __________.
How did increased access to information help speed up the end of the Cold War?