Early Writings (Pound, Ezra)
Ezra Pound makes his Penguin Classics debut with this unique selection of his early poems and prose, edited with an introductory essay and notes by Pound expert Ira Nadel. The poetry includes such early masterpieces as “The Seafarer,” “Homage to Sextus Propertius,” “Hugh Selwyn Mauberley,” and the first eight of Pound’s incomparable “Cantos.” The prose includes a series of articles and critical pieces, with essays on Imagism, Vorticism, Joyce, and the well-known “Chinese Written Character as a Medium for Poetry.” First time in Penguin Classics Includes generous selections of Pound's poetry, as well as an assortment of prose
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Ezra Pound's controversial political beliefs could not diminish his poetic genius. Pound, whose slogan was "Make it new," was a born teacher whose advice was sought after by the most brilliant writers of his day (1885-1972). He became a self-appointed spokesperson for the new poetic movement know as Imagism. Imagism favored precision of imagery and clear, sharp language. The Imagists rejected the sentiment and rambling language typical of much Romantic and Victorian poetry. Imagism called for directness of presentation and the economy of language, as well as experimenting with non-traditional verse forms. (This annotation contains an image)
Which type of poem is "Cino"?
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What is the main idea of this poem?
In 1913, Pound wrote an essay entitled "A Few Don'ts," which is included in the prose section of this book. Its rules provide young poets with a reminder to reign in their egos and apply themselves assiduously to their craft. The rules state that each verse should be lean and purposeful, with no frills or filler to provide padding. They also emphasize the importance of possessing an awareness of the work of previous poets, and of using this understanding in the creation of new work. As we work through Pound's poems, we will cover his rules and how he follows them in his work. (This annotation contains an image)
One of Pound's rules for poetry is "let the neophyte know assonance and alliteration." Which of the following lines from this poem uses alliteration?
Use this link to hear Pound's fiery reading of this poem. The images of clashing swords and crimson blood earned Pound’s poem the nickname “Bloody Sestina.” When Pound recited the poem in 1909 at a gathering of poets at a London restaurant, he reportedly put so much passion into his performance that “the table shook and cutlery vibrated in resonance with his voice.” (This annotation contains a link)
The Sestina is a complex form with 39 lines (six stanzas of six lines each followed by an envoi of three lines) all ending with one of six words that are grouped together in each stanza. What are the six repeated words that help to form this sestina?
These lines are an example of anaphora, the deliberate repetition of the first part of the sentence in order to achieve an artistic effect. Anaphora, possibly the oldest literary device, has its roots in Biblical Psalms used to emphasize certain words or phrases. Here, the anaphora is created by the repetition of the word "And" at the beginning of three lines in a row.
This poem was first published in 1909. The narrator is Simon Zelotes, speaking after the Crucifixion about his memories of Jesus (the "goodly fere," Old English for "companion," of the title). Pound wrote the poem as a direct response to what he considered inappropriately effeminate portrayals of Jesus, comparing Jesus, a "man o' men," to "capon priests." He subsequently told T.P.'s Weekly that he had "been made very angry by a certain sort of cheap irreverence."
How is the use of rhyme ironic in this poem?
Use this annotation to help answer the next question. A metonymy is a figure of speech that replaces the name of a thing with the name of something else with which it is closely associated. Check out this link for some examples of metonymy in use. (This annotation contains a link)
The "tree" is a metonymy for which of the following?
This is an allusion to Irish mythology. Aengus was one of the gods of love, youth and poetic inspiration. (This annotation contains an image)
Which of the following messages is illustrated in this excerpt?
This is another allusion from Irish mythology. Oisin was regarded in legend as a warrior and the greatest poet of Ireland. This painting, titled Ossian, by François Pascal Simon Gérard depicts a scene from Oisin's story. (This annotation contains an image)
Which of the following poetic devices is employed in these three lines?
Sic transit gloria mundi is a Latin phrase that means "Thus passes the glory of the world." It has been interpreted as "Worldly things are fleeting." It is possibly an adaptation of a phrase in Thomas à Kempis's 1418 work The Imitation of Christ: "O quam cito transit gloria mundi" ("How quickly the glory of the world passes away"). Study Juan Valdez Leal's work titled "Finis Gloriae Mundi" to answer the next question. (This annotation contains an image)
How does Leal's painting help to illustrate Pound's message of "sic crescit gloria mundi"?
In these lines, Pound expresses the lyrical power of the location of Sirmione, a commune in the province of Brescia, in Lombardy (northern Italy). He and his wife, Dorothy, found the place captivating and stimulating. Pound even built an altar of stones for Dorothy during a July 1911 visit. Sirmione appears as a motif in Pound's much longer work "The Cantos." (This annotation contains an image)
Through his wife's mother, Pound was introduced to W. B. Yeats, the greatest living poet in Pound's view, and they became close friends, although Yeats was older by 20 years. (This annotation contains an image)
Which poetic techniques does Pound use in this line?
What is the effect of the shortened line?
The occasion for writing the poem was an exhibition of Whistler’s paintings at the Tate Gallery in 1912. Pound admired Whistler, writing that he counted Whistler as “our only great artist” and hoped that his “informal salute,” his poem, would “carry into our American poetry the same sort of life and intensity in which he [Whistler] infused into modern painting.” This is one of his most famous works, "Mother." (This annotation contains an image)
After studying the painting in the last annotation, explain how both Whistler's "The Mother" and Pound's poetry "bear the brunt of our America / [a]nd try to wrench her impulse into art."
Pound's poem is a modernization of an Old English poem by the same name, serving as one of the four surviving manuscripts of Old English poetry. Pound's seafarer evaluates his life while chronicling the desolate hardships he has faced on the cold sea, and describes his anxious feelings and evaluating his life as he has lived it.
In the first stanza, the use of alliteration and imagery help to do which of the following?
Which of the following are the main themes of "The Seafarer"?
Watch this short video on theme, then answer the next question. (This annotation contains a video)
One of Pound's "Don'ts For Writing Poetry" states: "When Shakespeare talks of the 'Dawn in russet mantle clad' he presents something which the painter does not present. There is in this line of his nothing that one can call description; he presents." Explain how does Pound's poem "Above the Dock" follows this rule.
The speaker's tone toward his subject, which is critics in "Salutation the Third," can best be described as which of the following?
In this letter-poem, Pound assumes the voice of a Chinese river-merchant's wife as she thinks about her growing love for her husband. If you have ever been moved to write a message to someone you loved and missed, you will identify with the feelings of this eighth-century speaker.
What do these lines suggest about the circumstances of the speaker's marriage and the way she felt about it for the first year?
Discuss how the delicacy and understatement of the painting reflect Pound's poem.
Ch'ien Hsuan (1235-1307) was an artist of the late Sung dynasty (960-1279) in China, a period noted for landscape painting. The founder of a circle of artists called the Eight Talents of Wu-hsing, Ch'ien excelled at painting birds, flowers, figures, and landscapes. Here is his painting called "Wang Hsi-chih Watching Geese." Look at it closely then answer the next question. (This annotation contains an image)
"En robe de parade" is a quotation from 19th-century French poet Albert Samain. It means "dressed for show." In this poem, a beautifully dressed woman is observed walking in a London park. The poet begins by comparing her to a length of silk. He contrasts her fragility and over-refinement with the vigor of a group of poor children, painting a picture of an aloof, emotionally repressed woman frightened of interacting with others. This painting by Ambrose McEvoy is titled "Lillah McCarthy," an English actress and theatrical manager. (This annotation contains an image)
How would you explain "emotional anemia"? How might it cause the woman to die "piecemeal"?
"Breeding" can mean "producing offspring" or "good upbringing or good training." The speaker is suggesting that the woman comes from a family of high social standing. The phrase could also mean that the woman's fragility and emotional reserve will prevent her from ever becoming close to a man and having a child.
By comparing Whitman to a _________, Pound insinuates that he felt intimidated by Whitman's success.
Use this link to read a brief summary and analysis of "A Pact." Use this information to answer the next question. (This annotation contains a link)
In this quick poem (perhaps Pound's most famous), Pound describes watching faces appear in a metro station. He compares the faces in the busy crowd to "petals on a wet, black bough," suggesting that on the dark subway platform, the people look like flower petals stuck on a tree branch after a rainy night. The brevity of this poem can be intimidating to analyze. However, the shortness of this poem fits with its topic; when reading, the words flash by quickly, just as a subway speeds away from the platform in an instant. The doors open quickly, revealing a sea of faces, and then close again-- the faces are gone after a fleeting glance. This poem's length and quick pace matches the constant motion of a train as it speeds by.
The fleeting tone of the poem and its brevity help to illustrate which theme?
Pound ironically titles his poem "Villanelle" because it is not one. A villanelle is a nineteen-line poem with two rhymes throughout, consisting of five tercets and a quatrain, with the first and third lines of the opening tercet recurring alternately at the end of the other tercets and with both repeated at the close of the concluding quatrain.
How is this poem an example of an Imagist poem?
By ‘Perigord,’ Pound means the French town of Périgueux. ‘Périgord’ was the name of the old French province, of which Périgueux was the capital. As usual with Pound, one has to bear several historical periods in mind at once. (This annotation contains an image)
In the next four verses, Pound imagines a discussion between Richard and Daniel, as they too try to unravel the mystery of Bertran and his poem. The conversation takes place in pause before the above battle of Chalûs, where Richard would eventually be killed.
The use of punctuation in this excerpt helps to mark which of the following?
In these lines, Pound goes back to Dante’s depiction of de Born in Canto XXVIII of his Inferno. (This annotation contains an image)
Pound wrote this poem in imitation of Lord Byron’s attack on British letters, “English Bards and Scotch Reviewers.”
This line uses which of the following poetic techniques?
This section of the poem, along with others, is written using which of the following structures?
Propertius was a Roman writer who lived during the first century B.C. and was judged one of the finest elegiac poets in Latin. The elegy was a particular poetic genre, whose subject matter was most frequently lost love and whose tone was a mixture of wistfulness and sadness. Propertius gave the elegy a different twist, because his treatment of the form used language that was satirical, even bitter. He not only mocked the conventions of the traditional elegy but also used the form to mock the pretensions of imperial Rome. These qualities were the most congenial to Pound when he undertook his version of Propertius’ work. Pound wrote this poem in 1917, when the slaughter of World War I was at its greatest; he had come to detest the war for its senseless destruction of life and culture, and his recreation of another anti-imperial poet was an expression of that disgust. (This annotation contains an image)
When Pound published Homage to Sextus Propertius in 1919, a surprisingly large number of readers apparently thought that the work was intended to be a literal, or at least close, translation of classical Roman poetry. This misperception came despite the obvious clue in the title: Pound was paying tribute to Sextus Propertius and attempting to capture the spirit of his verse rather than the word-by-word meaning. Pound was simply a poet paying homage to another poet.
The first section of this poem does which of the following?
What two characters does Pound create in sections III and IV that deepen his exploration into the possibilities of erotic poetry?
Section V again raises the concern of choosing between heroic poetry singing the praises of war and empire, on the one hand, and expressly personal erotic verse focusing on women, in the other.
In sections VII, VIII, and IX, Pound uses the triumphant and despairing lover to establish sexual desire as the originating force behind epic events. Pound uses Helen and Paris as famous examples.
Which of the following themes does Section X touch on most?
In Section XII, through allusions to the Trojan War and the tale of Jason and Medea, what does Pound argue is the ultimate genesis of heroic action?
This well-known Pound poem consists of 18 short parts, and describes a poet whose life, like his own, has become sterile and meaningless. Published in June 1920, it marked his farewell to London. He had become disgusted by the loss of life during the war and was unable to reconcile himself with it.
Listen to Ezra Pound read his poem using this link. (This annotation contains a video)
Pound pays special attention to the classical Greek myths in order to achieve which of the following?
Pound combined a bit of classical poetic organization with some more contemporary styles when he was designing the form and meter of this poem. He uses traditional four-line stanzas (quatrains) and employs an ABAB rhyme scheme, but there is no meter within the lines. Each line has a different number of syllables, making it difficult to find a steady rhythm when reading. This choice fits with Pound's views on poetry; he believed it should sound musical, like the way people talk, rather than like a beating drum. Pound's decision to combine old and new styles of poetic form and meter fits with the theme of the poem itself, which addresses the clash between old and new visions of literature and art.
Pound criticizes artists and publishers for caring only about sales instead of the craft. He does this by creating a fictional conversation between his alter ego and a bestselling novelist who cares only about the reviews of his work. This encompasses one of the main messages of Pound's poem. Which of the following best relays this message?
In this section of the poem, Pound introduces the title character, Hugh Selwyn Mauberley, who is still interchangeable with Pound himself. Mauberley is a minor poet struggling to perfect his work, but unfortunately, society deems him irrelevant. Mauberley fails at romance - he can observe beauty but cannot act in time to seize it, and he eventually retires to the Pacific islands, which is where he dies.
These two short stanzas employ which of the following poetic techniques?
Using Venus as a symbol of beauty, Pound reminds his readers to celebrate which of the following?
THE CANTOS - (1917-1922)
The work opens with an introductory address to Browning, about the historical methodology of Sordello, before Pound turns to the key lines of the poem and an indication of his own methods. The real Sordello, so far as we have authentic facts about his life, was the most famous of the Italian troubadours. Sordello is perhaps best remembered for the praise heaped on him by other poets, such as Dante Alighieri, one of Pound's favorites. (This annotation contains an image)
Pound explicitly equates his persona with the angel of
The methodology Pound established for incorporating history and myth into his long poem in ‘Three Cantos’ derives in part from the infusion of past into present, and is followed through in Parts II and III. In Part II, Pound adjusts the poem's narrative technique. The persona of the narrator recedes from center stage and he presents his readers with a series of vignettes. A less prominent narrator discourses with images of many joyless ghosts, each fixed in a type of spiritual blindness.
The centaur that came "spying the land" is a metaphor for which of the following?
Kumasaka's ghost comes from the play Kumasaka, which Pound called the "Homeric presentation of combat" between the spirit of a warrior heor and a young boy. The reference of Kumasaka sets spiritual nobility in counterpoint to the corruption of the Cid, the Portuguese court of Afonso, and, ultimately, to Odysseus himself.
The end of Part II (excluding the last stanza) depicts the disappearance of which of the following?
This passages contains which of the following actions?
In Part III, Pound emphasizes the primitive nature of The Odyssey. It was not sufficient to suggest that the actions of The Odyssey had modern equivalents. Pound wants to emphasize that archetypal reccurences were rooted in primeval truth, and that the recognition of archetypes in their modern avatars would lead to educating modern man to lost perceptions. (This annotation contains an image)
There was a lapse in time between the publication of Cantos I-III and "The Fourth Canto." During this time Pound sought more subtle methods to dramatize a different kind of speaking voice. The voice of Cantos I-III achieves a definite tone through colloquial asides. In Canto IV, Pound follows a road of new imitation and experiment (from the Browning or Sordello-esque qualities of I-III to a style more reminiscent of Henry James in Canto IV).
This line employs which of the following poetic techniques?
This canto conveys meaning through the conceptual interplay of juxtaposed images rather than through the more typical means of using a mediating narrator or voice. It offers stark and contrasting images concerning smoldering Troy, athletic triumph, mythic marriage, the founding of Thebes, and much more.
Pound illustrates how the gods are forgotten in the rush of commercial prosperity. Forms are lost and with them the perception of the gods in the forms. Which of these lines best depicts Pound's message?
Canto VI is somewhat of a biographical sketch of the life of Eleanor of Aquitaine, a figure who appears earlier in Canto II, held up for comparison with Helen of Troy. Guillaume de Poitou (Eleanor's grandfather and pictured here) is also a focus; he is held up as a triumphal Odysseus-figure of the troubadour world. He is also, at least for Pound, the instigator of Provencal poetry and the troubadours. This video is a troubadour poem that Pound featured in his book The Spirit of Romance. (This annotation contains a video)
Eleanor is once again summoned and compared to Helen of Troy. This beauteous woman is the doom of both individuals and of civilizations. All of this passage is a ghostly echo of Homer, and follows Pound's own rule to "be influenced by as many great artists as you can, but have the decency to either acknowledge the debt outright." (This annotation contains an image)
Cantos III-VII are primarily set where?
Who is the speaker, or the reference of point of view, in Canto VII?
Pound harshly compares modern people to pesky insects and calls them "shells" of real human beings. He claims that he has seen good people ruined by the modern world and turned into shadows, or shells, of their former selves. Pound accuses these modern people not only of being shells, but also of turning other people into shells by "speaking a shell of speech" and infecting other people with their bitter, empty words. Pound is suggesting that modern people lack a spiritual core or center that people in the past used to get from their belief in beauty and art. Once these people become shells, Pound more or less loses all respect for them and calls them locusts, comparing them to insects that should be exterminated.
This excerpt contains which of the following poetic techniques?
One of Pounds rules for writing states that "good prose will do you no harm, and there is good discipline to be had by trying to write it." In this section, Pound practices what he preaches.
In this essay, Pound denounces the Whitman's "crudity" and "barbaric yawp." He believed that Walt Whitman was the epitome of American authenticity. After Pound settled in the UK, he did not hold a very high opinion of Whitman's classic American milieu. He also disliked Whitman's work because he felt that the poet did not show enough restraint and reticence, and believed it impossible to consider him an artist without those two virtues. Use this link to read a poem by Walt Whitman, then answer the next question. (This annotation contains a link)
Pound states in this essay that Whitman "is America." How does Whitman's poem support Pound's opinion?
Summarize how Pound views poets in comparison to scientists and mathematicians.
Another of Pounds rules for writing states, "Consider the way of the scientists rather than the way of an advertising agent for a new soap. The scientist does not expect to be acclaimed as a great scientist until he has discovered something. He begins by learning what has been discovered already. He goes from that point onward." The end of this essay shares similar ideas. Use this rule along with the text to answer the next question.
A troubadour was a composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350). The troubadour school or tradition began in the late 11th century in Occitania, but it subsequently spread into Italy and Spain. Under the influence of the troubadours, related movements sprang up throughout Europe. The texts of troubadour songs deal mainly with themes of chivalry and courtly love. Most were metaphysical, intellectual, and formulaic. Many were humorous or vulgar satires. (This annotation contains an image)
Which of the following is the best summary for how Pound views sex?
In which point of view is this essay written?
Arnaut Daniel was an Occitan troubadour of the 12th century, praised by Dante as a "the best smith" and called a "grand master of love" (gran maestro d'amore) by Petrarch. In the 20th century he was lauded as the greatest poet to have ever lived by Ezra Pound. (This annotation contains an image)
It was in the British Museum tearoom one afternoon that Pound and a couple of fellow poets decided to begin a 'movement' in poetry, called Imagism. Imagisme, Pound would write in Riposte, is "concerned solely with language and presentation". The aim was clarity: a fight against abstraction, romanticism, rhetoric, inversion of word order, and over-use of adjectives.
Which of the following poets would Pound have considered the most "wanting"?
Pound was clearly a highly motivated individual bent on knowing everything there is to know about poetry. It is without a sense of irony that later in his life, Pound analyzed what he judged to be his own failings as a writer attributable to his adherence to ideological fallacies. Allen Ginsberg states that, in a private conversation in 1967, Pound told the young poet, "my poems don't make sense." He went on to supposedly call himself a "moron," to characterize his writing as "stupid and ignorant," "a mess." Ginsberg reassured Pound that he "had shown us the way," but Pound refused to be mollified.
The end of this essay focuses on which of Pound's rules for writing?
Who does Pound award with the title "one of the noblest figures of the time"?
Joyos de Tolosa (late 13th century), whose first named is also spelled Joios, was a troubadour from Toulouse. He has left behind only one pastorela, "L'autr' ier el dous tems de Pascor," in which he names himself as the author. Joyos' knight complains to the shepherdess of the mistreatment he receives at the hands of his lady.
According to Pound, the work of "the later provencal period" can be divided into which three categories?
The poet Swinburne writes of troubadours, "Many of the troubadours extolled the purer forms of Catharsis, and dwelt on the dolorous joy of unsatisfied longing.... They sang of a passion which can never be requited in this world, of death as preferable to any human reward and of the duty of separation from the beloved."
Ezra Pound addresses the question of art’s worth in respect of the individual and also society as a whole. The treatise on the value of art in “The Serious Artist” takes Plato as a starting point. In The Republic, Plato would not allow the poet into his beloved republic because he felt that poetry was a further distortion from the world of the invisible and universal to the world of the visible and even more to the realm of shadows. (This annotation contains an image)
These two sentences employ which literary device?
Plato and Pound do seem to agree on at least one point: bad art is a kind of treacherous deceit, robbing people of what is natural and sensible.
Art is the science of _________, in that it explores what man wants and what he does not want.
Which of the following are used metaphorically in this excerpt?
This section expands on Pounds' rule for writing that compares a writer to a musician. Pound advises writers to "behave as a musician, a good musician, when dealing with that phrase of your art which has exact parallels in music. The same laws govern, and you are bound by no others."
Summarize the similarities and differences of prose and poetry according to Pound in sections III and IV.
Pound believes that art can only be of value if it is good art. This the heart of the essay: people must be able to distinguish good art from bad and then appropriate that knowledge to further investigate what is still not known. The tradition of art should be studied closely so that we may know what has already been discovered and where to go from here.
Here it is! This is the official famous list of rules that have been referred to throughout this book in the annotations and questions. Pound may have been a big fan of the rules of poetry, but he failed to follow the rules of the law and was arrested and imprisoned for treason and broadcasting antisemitic and fascist propaganda. (This annotation contains an image)
Who is the intended audience of "A Few Don'ts"?
What does Pound believe all artists should do?
Vers libre is an open form of poetry that abandons consistent meter patterns, rhyme, or other forms of musical pattern. It thus tends to follow the rhythm of natural speech. Vers libre is a poetic form of flexibility, complexity and naturalness created in the late 19th century in France. The unit of vers libre is not the foot, the number of the syllables, the quantity, or the line. The unit is the strophe, which may be the whole poem, or only a part. Each strophe is a complete circle. Vers libre is liberated from traditional rules concerning meter, caesura and line end stopping; every syllable pronounced is of nearly equal value.
"The Tradition" is a manifesto of sorts, tracing modern English poetry back to its origins. Pound deals with the role of the tradition in art, and how poetry should not try to destroy or react against the tradition. The artist needs to understand the tradition, in order to appropriate its proper use.
In this work of prose, Pound tries his hand at critique. He reviews Ford Madox Hueffer's works of poetry. In another essay, Pound writes, "Hueffer is presented to us as the father or at least the shepherd of English impressionist writers... One is thankful for Mr. Hueffer in [a] land full of indigenous institutions... He can and sometimes does write prose. I mean Prose with a very big capital letter. Prose that really delights one by its limpidity." (This annotation contains an image)
What is Pound's opinion of America? Use evidence from the text to support your answer.
This section expands on Pound's rule for poetry that states, " The musician can rely on pitch and the volume of the orchestra. You can not. The term harmony is misapplied in poetry; it refers to simultaneous sounds of different pitch. There is, however, in the best verse a sort of residue of sound which remains in the ear of the hearer and acts more of less as an organ-base."
Which word best defines Pound's view of Hueffer's works?
Pound is credited with coining the term Vorticism. While Vorticist art often emphasizes structural mass and a combination of movement and central stillness through the use of thick borders and typographical inventiveness, Vorticist poetry focuses on locating the movement and stillness within the image. Vorticism was a short-lived modernist movement in British art and poetry of the early 20th century. David Bomberg's painting "The Mud Bath" exemplifies Vorticism. (This annotation contains an image)
Though the Vorticism style grew out of Cubism, it is more closely related to Futurism in its embrace of dynamism, the machine age and all things modern. However, Vorticism diverged from Futurism in the way it tried to capture movement in an image. In a Vorticist painting modern life is shown as an array of bold lines and harsh colours drawing the viewer's eye into the centre of the canvas. Here is the cover of the 1915 Blast. Use this image to answer the next question. (This annotation contains an image)
How is the cover of the 1915 Blast an example of Vorticist art?
In this essay, Pound compares which of the following?
Imagists were group of American and English poets whose poetic program was formulated about 1912 by Ezra Pound--in conjunction with fellow poets Hilda Doolittle (H.D.), Richard Aldington, and F.S. Flint--and was inspired by the critical views of T.E. Hulme, in revolt against the careless thinking and Romantic optimism he saw prevailing. The Imagists wrote succinct verse of dry clarity and hard outline in which an exact visual image made a total poetic statement. Imagism was a successor to the French Symbolist movement, but, whereas Symbolism had an affinity with music, Imagism sought analogy with sculpture. In 1914 Pound turned to Vorticism, and Amy Lowell largely took over leadership of the group.
Pound maintained his emphasis on the need for poems to use the language and rhythms of speech, rather than artificial poetic conventions. Although he rejected conventional poetic diction and meter, Pound was steeped in literary tradition.
Which of Pound's key Imagist laws does "As for Imagisme" speak of the most?
As one of Pound's central Imagist tenets states, "the natural object is always the adequate symbol," he appreciated that the Chinese method of writing follows natural suggestion by being based on vivid shorthand pictures of the operations of nature instead of arbitrary symbols. (This annotation contains an image)
Between 1913 and 1916, Pound and Yeats shared a stone cottage in Sussex, where they studied occult lore, Chinese poetry, and Japanese Noh drama. Pound served as Yeats’ secretary, and Yeats praised the younger man for helping him to “eliminate the abstract” from his poetry, although Pound learned much from Yeats about how to write modern poetry. (This annotation contains an image)
What image suggests that the river-merchant was reluctant to leave home?
This sentence is an example of which of the following?
Pound's experience of working in and with the Chinese language, which has a different relationship to parts of speech, inspired him to begin to reevaluate their role in his own English poetry, producing what has come to be recognized as the Imagist effect.
For Pound, the Chinese ideograph represents the juxtaposition of concrete images on the level of the character itself, but he also seems to think that such a principle can be applied to levels of poetry. For example, this could be achieved in a poem by juxtaposing two of more clusters of images. The combination then produces a different meaning or significance larger than the individual symbols in isolation.
This excerpt deals primarily with which of the following?
This excerpt discusses which of the following?
As Pound notes here, the Chinese ideogram is metaphorical, not abstract, since the ideogram is composed of concrete things and vivid pictures.
Which literary techniques are employed in this excerpt?
Working in London in the early 20th century as foreign editor of several American literary magazines, Pound helped discover and shape the work of contemporaries such as T. S. Eliot, James Joyce, Robert Frost and Ernest Hemingway. Between Pound and Joyce, there was a steady flow of letters, in which we see Pound finding publishers for Joyce, collecting money for him, defending him against censorship, even sending spare clothes. More than sixty letters from Pound to Joyce have survived.
Pound specifically points out his admiration of which of the following?
In "Paris Letter," one of the many pieces Pound wrote in support of Ulysses, Pound does not hold back his admiration for his colleague, James Joyce (seen here). (This annotation contains an image)
Pound compares Joyce to François Rabelais, a major French Renaissance writer, doctor, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar. He has historically been regarded as a writer of fantasy, satire, the grotesque, bawdy jokes and songs. He is considered one of the great writers of world literature and among the creators of modern European writing. (This annotation contains an image)
This paragraph best exemplifies which of Pound's rules for writing?