The Divine Comedy

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Dante Alighieri's poetic masterpiece, The Divine Comedy, is a moving human drama, an unforgettable visionary journey through the infinite torment of Hell, up the arduous slopes of Purgatory, and on to the glorious realm of Paradise-the sphere of universal harmony and eternal salvation. (From
Curriculet Details
210 Questions
207 Annotations
3 Quizzes

In this curriculet geared toward 11th and 12th graders, annotations include links to religious images and documents discussing Christianity. This curriculet also includes explanations of how authors teach history through anecdotes, how authors develop theme and tension and how authors use imagery to create mood and tone. Students also learn about how authors use motif in literature. Interactive videos support engagement and cover subjects such as the Seven Deadly Sins, Catholic traditions, the 10 Commandments, separation of church and state and the difference between evolution and creationism. The Common Core aligned questions and answers address text structure, figurative language, how to infer theme, and how to determine whether a character is static or dynamic. Our free online unit will increase student engagement with rich media annotations while supporting reading comprehension with questions and quizzes that are imbedded directly into the book.

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Inferno, Chapter 1

Mood is a literary and poetic device that authors use in fiction texts. Watch this video to learn about how authors create mood then respond to the following question. (This annotation contains a video)
The Divine Comedy is a religious text which delves into ideas about sin and morality. The Seven Deadly Sins are present throughout the poem. Visit this site and learn about them before you begin to read.  (This annotation contains a link)
Which mood does Alighieri create in the opening of this poem? 
Rome is the capital city of Italy, which is a country in Europe. Italy is one of the settings for this poem since this is where the main character is from. Many great artists were born in Italy including Leonardo DaVinci who painted the Sistine Chapel.  (This annotation contains an image)
Based on this line, what can we tell about the speaker? 

Inferno, Chapter 2

Based on the context, what does "day was departing" mean? 
Did you know that you can look up any word in the book or in the questions and answer choices? Just click (or press on mobile devices) the word you want to define and hold until the blue text selector pops up. When you release, a define option will appear. Use this feature to look up the word "manifest." 
In 2-3 sentences, summarize what has happened thus far in the poem.  
You can tell that this poem was written in the 14th century because it includes archaic language such as "thee." Take note of other archaic language you notice in the text. 

Inferno, Chapter 3

Pope Celestine V was Pope for five months from July 5th to December 13th, 1294. He was also a monk who founded the order of the Celestines. Alighieri discusses many political and religious leaders in this poem because many of them committed crimes. How does that relate to the topic of this poem? (This annotation contains an image)
Considering the context, who is most likely the "sublime Creator"? 
The Acheron River is frequently referenced in Greek mythology.  (This annotation contains an image)
This phrase means the speaker is 

Inferno, Chapter 4

Based on the title, we can tell that the speaker, Dante, is somewhere between 
When good readers read poetry, they read it out loud. It helps the reader understand the richness of the lines. When you come to a difficult section, read it out loud to improve comprehension.  
Based on the phrase "honorable people," we can tell that the "place" in this line is 
What could the "four mighty shades" be? Consider where Dante is. 
Dante is being guided by a ____________ person. 
This imagery shows that Dante may be journeying to Hell. The phrase "nothing shines" gives us that clue. As you read, notice other descriptive words and phrases the author uses to guide you through Dante's journey.  

Inferno, Chapter 5

Virgil references these historical female figures in conversation with Dante to show that 
This line reveals that Dante sees Virgil as a teacher. He is willing to listen to his lessons and stories in order to be morally sound.  
Francesca is telling Dante that she kissed her husband's younger brother which enraged her husband. This is why she is dead. Think about why Alighieri included this anecdote in this section of the poem. 
The fact that Dante felt "pity" and fainted after learning about Francesca's sad love story, reveals that he is  

Inferno, Chapter 6

Dante has now moved into the Third Circle of Hell where he will learn more lessons and encounter more obstacles. Read to find out which new issues he faces on his journey with Virgil.  
Which new obstacle does Dante face in the Third Circle of Hell? 
Ciacco is telling Dante about the fate of the politicians from Florence who were sinful during their reigns.  
Which central idea about Christianity is revealed through Dante's conversation with Ciacco? 

Inferno, Chapter 7

Alighieri uses descriptions to create strong imagery in this poem. Watch this video to understand more about how authors create imagery. (This annotation contains a video)
The "howls" and "crying" from the people in the Fourth Ring of Hell reveal that they are 
The word "descend" signals that Virgil and Dante are moving into the Fifth Ring of Hell. This image shows the Rings of Hell. Use it to guide you throughout the poem. (This annotation contains an image)
Based on the people's actions, which of the Seven Deadly Sins is prominent in the Fifth Ring of Hell? 

Inferno, Chapter 8

Based on this dialogue, why are the fallen angels disturbed by Dante's presence? 
Philippo Argenti is being attacked on the bank of the river. This image shows you what fighting looks like at the Styx. (This annotation contains an image)
This line shows that Dante and Virgil have been ______________ by the demons. 
Virgil and Dante are trying to get into the city of Dis which is in Lower Hell, but they have been rejected. Do you think they will find a way in? 

Inferno, Chapter 9

The image of "small serpents" suggests that Virgil and Dante may have encountered the famous mythical creature Medusa. Read to find out if this is who they have come across.  (This annotation contains an image)
Based on these lines, who have Dante and Virgil encountered? 
Analyze the validity of this image of Hell. Based on Alighieri's descriptions, is this similar to the image which the poem has created in your mind?  (This annotation contains an image)
The image above paints a ____________ image of Hell when compared to the descriptions in this poem. 

Inferno, Chapter 10

Which mood does the description of the man create? 
The ascendence of this man from the grave interrupts Dante's encounter with Farinata.  
Which subject is the man from the grave discussing with Dante? 
Do you think Dante appeased the man from the grave because he is afraid of him? What were Dante's motivations? 

Inferno, Chapter 11

Since this poem reads as a narrative, Alighieri employs a specific structure. Watch this video to learn how authors structure texts. (This annotation contains a video)
Considering the events that have unfolded thus far in the poem, which structure does the author use? 
What is the purpose of the usurer? 

Inferno, Chapter 12

Dante and Virgil are now in the First Circle of the Seventh Circle of Hell. Remember, the further they descend, the worse the sins are.  
Which line from the text shows that Chiron realizes Dante is a human? 
Based on his actions, Virgil has proven to be a great protector of Dante. Once again he has saved him from being injured in Hell. 

Inferno, Chapter 13

The imagery of the tree is dark and reminiscent of the biblical story about Adam and Eve. (This annotation contains an image)
The "hideous Harpies" and monsters in Hell are 
Who is the speaker in these lines? 
Descriptions of the creatures in Hell and phrases like "soul is bound" create a sense that Hell is a prison of confinement.  
The continual reference to Florence and politics reveals the central idea that 

Inferno, Chapter 14

What do these lines reveal about Dante? 
Alighieri often switches the subject and the predicate in his lines. Think about each line in this way. It may help you navigate through the text with ease. 
What does the "redness" in the description of the river represent? 
Virgil is going into depth about the rivers as he speaks to Dante to inform him about their source.  

Inferno, Chapter 15

Dante and Virgil are now in the Seventh Zone of the Seventh Circle's Third Ring. 
Why do you think creatures in Hell continue to recognize Dante even though he is not dead? 
The phrase "baked aspect" most likely means 
What does the highlighted phrase mean? 
Latini is drawing a comparison between Dante and the other political leaders in Florence. He is praising Dante for being "good" and different from those leaders who sin.  

Inferno, Chapter 16

The three "men" introduced in these lines recognize Dante from Florence. However, Dante does not recognize them because they are charred.  
These lines suggest that the characters are surrounded by 
This is the first time Virgil has put Dante in danger. What could Virgil's intentions be? 
Based on the context, who "will upward come"? 

Inferno, Chapter 17

Dante and Virgil have now descended deeper into the ring. They are sure to encounter more danger, but will be closer to the truth they are seeking. 
In 2-3 sentences, describe what Dante and Virgil are doing in these lines.  
Dante and Virgil have climbed aboard the monster. It is taking them to the Eighth Circle of Hell.  
Good readers notice figurative language in a text and figure out what it means. Watch this video to learn about simile and metaphor.  (This annotation contains a video)
This simile most likely means 

Inferno, Chapter 18

Venedico Caccianimico was a political leader in Bologna Italy from 1228 – 1302. Dante is most likely making this reference because he, too, was involved in politics.  (This annotation contains an image)
The fact that Dante keeps seeing people he knows from Italy shows that 
This language shows that the characters 

Inferno, Chapter 19

Dante is speaking to a Pope who was sent to Hell because he committed simony, which is the buying or selling of ecclesiastical privileges. This is another example of a political Italian leader who steeped himself in sin.  
Dante believes that the Pope ____________ this harsh punishment.  

Inferno, Chapter 20

A canto is one of the sections into which long poems are divided. In this canto, Dante opens by telling the reader that he is "of a new pain." What could be more disturbing than what he has already seen? 
What does this line reveal about the sinners that Dante is observing in this ring? 
Dante is suggesting that he is trying not to cry. The clue from this inference is in the phrase "my face unmoistened."  
Watch this video to learn more about torture in the middle ages then respond to the following question. Please note that some of the images in this video may be disturbing to some viewers. (This annotation contains a video)
In this canto, Dante is describing the torture the sinners are enduring. They are walking in an endless line with their heads turned about. How does this torture compare to the torture methods seen in the video? 

Inferno, Chapter 21

Alighieri uses motifs in this poem to prove points. Watch this video to learn how to identify a motif. (This annotation contains a video)
Which motif reoccurs in almost every canto? 
In these lines, Malabranche tells Dante and Virgil that 
Have you noticed that each ring has heat in some form? These descriptions align with popular beliefs about the conditions in Hell.  (This annotation contains an image)

Inferno, Chapter 22

What is going to happen to these souls Dante has encountered? 
It is interesting to know that even sinners have enemies in Hell. Take note of other striking ideas as you continue to read this canto.  
The demons are chasing the soul because they are angry with him for wanting to escape.  
Dante and Virgil were able to escape because 

Inferno, Chapter 23

In this part of the poem, Alighieri decides to create tension. Watch this video to learn where authors typically place tension in a text. (This annotation contains a video)
Alighieri decides to place tension in this part of the poem because 
Why does Virgil, the "Leader," have "anger in his looks?" 
This line implies that 

Inferno, Chapter 24

Alighieri continues to keep the characters in conflict. This most likely occurs because the characters have been descending deeper and deeper into the pits of Hell. Trace the events and notice when the conflict changes or resolves.  
How are Virgil and Dante distinctly different in this scenario? 
Dante knows Tuscan from Earth. Based on what Tuscan says, it is clear that he feels ashamed that Dante has seen him in this sinful state. Could it be that Hell is fostering feelings of remorse in its demons? 
Tuscan is able to tell Dante that the future of Florence is doomed because  

Inferno, Chapter 25

Watch this clip from the movie "Harry Potter" then respond to the following question. (This annotation contains a video)
In mythological narratives such as "The Divine Comedy" and "Harry Potter," protagonists often encounter similar 
These descriptions represent a 
The beasts are threatening one another.  

Inferno, Chapter 26

A chariot is a two-wheeled horse-drawn vehicle used in ancient warfare and racing. (This annotation contains an image)
What does this line reveal about the way Dante views Virgil? 
Based on context, "the seed" most likely means the lineage or parents which one comes from.  
According to the text, summarize how Ulysses died. 

Inferno, Chapter 27

Based on this dialogue, why does Guido tells Dante who he is? 
The reader is introduced to another town in Italy, Montagna. Use this map to keep track of the towns that have been referenced so far. Do you see Florence? (This annotation contains an image)
Why was Guido doomed to the Eighth Pouch? 
From this line we have learned that lying is a sin punishable by condemnation into Hell. This is a Christian belief but is also prominent in other religions.  

Inferno, Chapter 28

Since these sinners were involved in scandals that severed human relationships, they are now being punished by being physically severed in Hell. How does this punishment connect to the common phrase "What goes around, comes around"? As you read, notice other universal themes that crop up in the poem.  
What does this line mean? 
What is the phrase "that good companion" referring to? 
This is an interesting development. This is the first time a sinner has asked Dante to bring a message back to Earth. Why is this happening now? 

Inferno, Chapter 29

Even though Dante is describing the horrific scenes he is observing, there is feeling in his words. Characters often change due to situations they are placed in. Watch this video to learn about "static" and "dynamic" characters. (This annotation contains a video)
What does this line reveal about Dante's current emotional state? 
Dante has proven he is a "dynamic" character because 

Inferno, Chapter 30

Dante and Virgil have continued their journey and are now in the Second Zone in the Tenth Pouch of the Eighth Circle of Hell. What do you predict will happen here? 
Based on these lines, what is Master Adam's punishment in Hell? 
Virgil is ____________ because, for the first time, we see an angry side of him.  
Dante is excusing himself from the petty argument the two demons are having. Virgil's reaction motivates him to walk away.  

Inferno, Chapter 31

Alighieri uses this imagery to create a feeling of 
This is an image of a mythological giant. How does this image compare to Dante's descriptions? What are the similarities and what are the differences? (This annotation contains an image)
Which line from the text reveals that Virgil is asking the Giants to place them deeper into Hell? 
Based on the Giant's response to Virgil's request, we can tell that Virgil is persuasive. Authors often make persuasive characters the leaders in a story since they have the ability to influence other characters. 

Inferno, Chapter 32

Dante and Virgil are now in the First Ring of the Ninth Circle of Hell. As you read, take note of a stark difference in the setting.  
How is the setting of The Ninth Circle different from the others? 
Why is Dante violently aggressive toward Bocca and not aggressive toward the other sinners he has encountered? 
This is strange. Why would Dante make the offer to this sinner and not to the others? 

Inferno, Chapter 33

As they descend farther into Hell, Dante is growing increasingly more 
Phrases like "poor flesh" bring a rawness to the text. Alighieri employees strong words that fit the themes and settings of the narrative.  
The demons are becoming more and more grotesque and sinful. Alighieri is aligning the descent into Hell with the severity of their crimes. This was a clever choice. It builds the narrative and moves it along.  
What does this line reveal about the demons encountered in this circle? 

Inferno, Chapter 34

Dante and Virgil are now in the Fourth Ring of The Ninth Circle which is the devil's chamber. Since this is the end of this section, look for elements of resolution.  
The descriptions of the Devil show that Alighieri views the Devil as 
Quiz One: Inferno  

Purgatorio, Chapter 1

There are three levels of the divine realm: The Inferno (Hell), Purgatory (Limbo) and Heaven. The second canto of this epic poem takes place in Purgatory. Read to find out what Dante experiences in this realm.  
This line indicates that Purgatory is a place for 
Why does Alighieri include Purgatory as the middle section of the text? 
Purgatory is written about in the Bible. This fact furthers the religious themes in this poem. Watch this video to learn more about Purgatory's presence in the Bible. (This annotation contains a video)

Purgatorio, Chapter 2

How does the setting in Purgatory compare to the setting in the Inferno? 
Dante is using the image of this beautiful woman Aurora to show the reader the difference in setting between the Inferno and Purgatory. As you read, notice other metaphors he uses that show what it is like in this realm.  
Why are these souls on the boat not "afraid of crowding"? 
Even though the "fortunate spirit" hugged Dante, it could not embrace him. Dante refers to the spirt as "empty" because it is only a shadow.  

Purgatorio, Chapter 3

Based on this line, what happens to the spirits that were in the boat? 
Which line from the text best shows that Dante feels passionately about Virgil? 
Which issue do Dante and Virgil face? 
What do you suspect Dante will do next? 

Purgatorio, Chapter 4

In this line, what is Dante saying about souls? 
Plato was a philosopher in Classical Greece, and an influential figure in philosophy. He introduced the idea that people have more than one soul.  (This annotation contains an image)
Visit this site and read an excerpt from one of Shakespeare's poems then respond to the following question.  (This annotation contains a link)
How is the language in Shakespeare's sonnets comparable to this poem? 

Purgatorio, Chapter 5

Alighieri sometimes titles his sections by including the English translation then the Italian translation. This makes the book accessible to a broader audience.  
What does the phrase "eyes I turned with utterance" mean? 
According to this line, what is in the lake? 
This body language shows that the character is sad. Notice Dante's actions to determine how he is responding to this story.  

Purgatorio, Chapter 6

By using the pronoun "he," Dante is referring to himself in the third person. Why is he doing that? 
How are the spirits responding to Dante? 
Why is Dante embracing this spirit? 
Dante is telling the spirit that there is a war in Italy. He is updating him on events that are occurring back home.  
In 2-3 sentences, explain what Dante is saying about how the city of Florence compares to Italy as a whole. Use evidence from the text to support your assertion.  
Florence is the "her" Dante is referring to. He calls Florence a sick woman due to the "self-destruction" that is occurring there. 

Purgatorio, Chapter 7

This line shows that a rule in Purgatory is that no one can travel at night because it is dark.  
In popular discourse, darkness is often a symbol for evil. Why are spirits not allowed to travel at night? 
Why do you think Sordello goes into such great depth about political leaders? 
Sordello considers Henry III of England as a great ruler because he lives a "simple life" free of corruption. (This annotation contains an image)

Purgatorio, Chapter 8

We can tell  _________ have arrived because they are "not among the damned." 
Angels most likely arrived in Purgatory because it is a place of cleansing. This would never occur in Hell because it is a place of sin.  
Different cultures have different ways of telling time and keeping calendar. Read the first few paragraphs of this site to learn an example then respond to the following question. (This annotation contains a link)
By using the Ram as a reference for time, what is Currado revealing about the middle ages? 

Purgatorio, Chapter 9

Dante discusses beauty more than ever in this canto about Purgatory. Why is he doing that? 
This is the first time Dante addresses the reader directly. Could it be that he is becoming more confident? 
Dante and Virgil are now at Purgatory's gate. What do you think will happen here? 
Why does Alighieri compare the gate to a roar? 

Purgatorio, Chapter 10

Remember, no one is allowed to turn around once they have passed through Purgatory's gate.  
Why did Alighieri include singing in Purgatory? 
Why is Dante comparing the spirits to corbels? 
Corbels are wooden brackets used to support a roof.  (This annotation contains an image)

Purgatorio, Chapter 11

Which central idea does Omberto's story and punishment reveal? 
This is the half way point in this great poem. Themes have been emerging and others are already prominent. Watch this video to learn about some common themes in literature then respond to the following question. (This annotation contains a video)
The idea of loving thy neighbor is one of the Ten Commandments which is a prominent set of ideals in Christian faith. Visit this website to read the full list then respond to the following question. (This annotation contains a link)
According to the 10 commandments, why was Oderisi able to enter Purgatory after living a life of selfishness? 

Purgatorio, Chapter 12

Dante is walking through a sculpture garden. These gardens were very popular in Europe during this time. Notice his reaction to the images he sees.  (This annotation contains an image)
How does Dante react to the sculptures he sees in the garden? 
Dante sees six "P"s on his forehead. We do not yet know what the P stands for. What do you think it means? 
What is Virgil's reaction as he watches Dante poke at the letters on his forehead? 

Purgatorio, Chapter 13

What do these lines reveal about the spirits? 
Alms are money or food given to poor people. This is a common practice in churches. This idea is relevant to the poem since this is a religious text.  
In 2-3 sentences, analyze how the souls in Purgatory are different from those in the Inferno. Use evidence to support your assertion.  
This soul is saying that even though he knows he has a chance of going to Heaven, he still feels tormented by his sinful deeds performed on Earth. What life lesson is to be learned from this anecdote? 

Purgatorio, Chapter 14

Consider what you have read about the rams so far. Why does Dante continue to reference nature? 
A pasture is land covered with grass and other low plants suitable for grazing animals, especially cattle or sheep. Why do you think pastures are referenced in this poem? (This annotation contains an image)
The anecdotes that the spirits share show that they are in great despair. Their desperate nature seems odd since they are in Purgatory and on their way to Heaven. Why do you think they express such sorrow? 
How do the spirits in Purgatory respond differently to Dante's prescense than the "souls" in the Inferno? Why are they responding differently? Make sure you respond to both parts of the prompt.  

Purgatorio, Chapter 15

Remember, you can use the define feature to learn words you do not know. Use the define feature to learn what "smitten" means. 
What does this phrase indicate about the setting? 
Alighieri has interrupted Dante's narrative with visions to 
This vision touches upon wrath which is one of the Seven Deadly Sins. Notice other sins that are discussed as you continue to read.  

Purgatorio, Chapter 16

Virgil speaks these words to 
Dante can tell the voices are spirits because they are singing.  
Watch this video about the separation of church and state then respond to the following question. (This annotation contains a video)
Why does Marco compare the shepherd to a leader's power? 

Purgatorio, Chapter 17

Dante and Virgil are still in the Terrace of Wrath. What kinds of dreams do you think Dante will have in this canto? 
Which of the following show that Dante is having dreams about wrath? 
The poem now shifts from a discussion on wrath to a discussion on love. Notice the lessons Dante learns about this virtue.  
Which provocative idea is Virgil sharing with Dante about love? 

Purgatorio, Chapter 18

Sloth is the fifth of the deadly sins which you will see in this canto. It is the act of laziness and reluctance to work or make an effort. Watch this animation to learn some of the consequences of sloth.  (This annotation contains a video)
By mentioning Beatrice in this context, what is Dante revealing about his feelings toward her? 
This is another example of a spiritual leader having made poor choices in his mortal life. What is Alighieri's attitude toward these individuals? 

Purgatorio, Chapter 19

In 3-4 sentences, describe the dreams Dante has about the "ugly" woman. Read the opening of the canto carefully for accuracy. 
Dante compares the woman to a swan to show how beautiful she is. Notice other comparisons throughout the poem and figure out why they are used.  
What does this observation of the soul reveal about punishment in the realms? 
Dante's action in this line shows that he is vulnerable and empathetic as a result of observing the pain of the souls. 

Purgatorio, Chapter 20

Remember, the quotation marks around text distinguish the narration from the dialogue. Use this knowledge to help you navigate through the poem. 
What does the highlighted line suggestion about this man's offspring? 
Which aspect of the setting has changed to signal that new events are about to unfold? 
Alighieri does not outwardly use words that reveal a song is being sung. Instead look for signal words such as "cry." In this canto, "hear the cry" means to hear voices singing.  

Purgatorio, Chapter 21

Why did the mountain tremble? 
The mountain's happy reaction to this soul shows that purity of the soul is glorious. This plot event reveals the true splendors of repentance and Purgatory.  
In this context, "embrace" means to hug. This spirit wants to hug Virgil, forgetting that it is merely a shadow to him. 
Which central idea does this line reveal? 

Purgatorio, Chapter 22

Why do you think Alighieri made it so that the souls in Hell and in Purgatory have physical deformities? 
All of the souls Dante encounters are Christian. Keep in mind that this poem is religious and is Christian-centered.  
The men have arrived at the sixth terrace of the gluttonous. Gluttony is the first of the deadly sins and is habitual greed or excess in eating. Watch this video to learn more gluttony. (This annotation contains a video)
Why is Alighieri making references to food in this chapter? 

Purgatorio, Chapter 23

Once again Dante sees someone he knew on Earth. He recognizes his voice, but not his face because it has been deformed due to his sins. 
The phrase "issues from" most likely means 
Dante is explaining why he is in this realm and who he is with. He does this because many of the souls he encounters do not understand why a human walks amongst them.  

Purgatorio, Chapter 24

According to the text, who is already in Heaven? 
The phrase "holy flock" means a group of souls who are approaching.  
What is the literal meaning of this imagery? 
The angel finally removes the sixth letter P from Dante's forehead. This brings a sense of closure to this part of the poem. 
This "love of taste" refers to 

Purgatorio, Chapter 25

Dante and Virgil are now in the sixth terrace. Dante continues to see emaciated and deformed souls, but he does not understand how this could be since they are mere shadows.  
Dante, Virgil and Statius are having a _____________ conversation. 
The souls of the lustful are singing this hymn. Consider how they connect to the husbands and wives discussed on this page. 
These husbands and wives are symbols of chastity which is the opposite of which deadly sin? 

Purgatorio, Chapter 26

These lines indicate that there are two groups of spirits who have committed lustful sins. They are debating about lust. Watch this video about Sodom and Gomorrah to learn why this biblical reference is being used. Be advised that this video uses strong language and is of a mature subject matter which may be inappropriate for some viewers.  (This annotation contains a video)
Based on what you learned from the video, why do these spirits reference Sodom and Gomorrah? 
The poet Dante is conversing with is speaking in his own language. This is a testament to his linguistic skills. He is known to be the greatest poet in the land.  
The phrase "summit of the stairs" most likely means that 

Purgatorio, Chapter 27

Dante is afraid to pass through the flames, but the angel tells him this is the only way he'll be able to continue his journey.  
Why is Virgil mentioning Beatrice to Dante in this moment? 
Virgil is praising Dante for crossing the flames and overcoming his fear. Dante has grown in character. He is stronger now than when he started the journey.  
Which central idea is revealed through Dante's accomplishment? 

Purgatorio, Chapter 28

Dante is now in the Garden of Eden where Adam and Eve were created. Notice how the setting has changed.  
Alighieri most likely changed the setting to a more beautiful place because 
In 2-3 sentences, describe the purpose of the river Lethe and the river Eunoè. 
Since these rivers have a positive purpose, we can tell that Dante and Virgil are getting closer to Heaven.  

Purgatorio, Chapter 29

The author most likely draws this comparison to 
Alighieri places new characters throughout the story to mirror what is happening on Dante's journey. He places women in this canto to show that Dante is getting closer and closer to Heaven. Why do you think Alighieri did not place beautiful women in Hell? 
What does this phrase reveal about the men? 
A garland is a wreath of flowers and leaves worn on the head or hung as a decoration. This decorative headdress is often known as a sign of beauty.  (This annotation contains an image)

Purgatorio, Chapter 30

According to these lines, why does Dante decide to go on this long journey through the realms? 
This is the first time Virgil has left Dante's side. Why does he do this now? 
What does the phrase "youthful eyes" reveal about Dante? 

Purgatorio, Chapter 31

Based on her words, Beatrice is clearly _________ with Dante's actions. 
Beatrice thinks Dante wasted his time visiting the realms.  
Which line from the text reveals that Dante feels guilty for disappointing Beatrice? 
This personification was used to provoke feeling in the reader. 

Purgatorio, Chapter 32

In this canto, the women and the two men are proceeding in a line to the Tree of Knowledge. This is the same tree referenced in the Bible where Adam and Eve had a moral transgression.  
Why is the tree barren when they arrive? 
When Dante awakens from his slumber, what does he realize? 
These images of Beatrice make her seem powerful and Godly.  

Purgatorio, Chapter 33

This is the final canto in this section. How do you think Alighieri will end it? 
Alighieri most likely uses the image of Mary on the cross to 
Quiz Two: Purgatorio 

Paradiso, Chapter 1

Heaven in popular media is often depicted as a kingdom with pearly gates, clouds and other positive images. As you read notice the setting and compare it to your image of Heaven.  (This annotation contains an image)
These lines uttered by Dante reveal that he is 
Through these descriptions of Heaven and Dante's feelings, which mood is Alighieri creating? 
Based on Dante's descriptions, it is clear that he feels a sense of newness and rebirth in Heaven.  

Paradiso, Chapter 2

By using the phrase "O Ye," Dante signals that he is directly addressing the reader. Alighieri employees this tactic to encourage the reader to stay engaged for the rest of the poem. Notice other moves the author makes as you read.  
What is the "ship" is Dante referring to? 
Dante is going into a full explanation about the moons, the stars and the solar system. 
Based on the setting, why might Dante be discussing the moon? 

Paradiso, Chapter 3

This line shows that the lecture gave Dante a  
Alighieri creates tension in the story by inserting visions when Dante realizes a new truth. Look for these visions as you read.  
Beatrice continually gives Dante advice and teaches him new ideas as he continues on his journey. What do these teachings reveal about her? 
Consider the virtuous lessons that have been embedded in the text. What new ideas about being a good person have you learned? 

Paradiso, Chapter 4

Why does Alighieri insert these comparisons in this part of the story? 
This lush language shows that Dante is in deep thought. As we near the end of the poem, Dante is beginning to toil and change. What do you predict he will be like by the end of his journey?  
Dante is realizing that not all of the souls in Heaven are equal. Some will ascend into the highest ranks of Heaven and others will not.  
Which lesson is being taught in these lines? 

Paradiso, Chapter 5

Based on the title, predict what this section of the poem will be about.  
How do these lines show a shift in Beatrice's behavior? 
Beatrice is citing Jepthah to prove that 
This poem reveals a lack of faith that people have in political and spiritual leaders due to corruption and abuse of power. Visit this website to learn about the pastor's role in a church then determine whether or not you think there should be leaders in a religious institution. (This annotation contains a link)

Paradiso, Chapter 6

Watch this video to learn more about the famous Emperor Constantine then respond to the following question. (This annotation contains a video)
Why is this soul telling Dante about Constantine? 
Now that Dante is in Heaven, Alighieri makes it a point to inform the reader about the histories of Christianity and what was going on politically during the time of Christ's death. 
Alighieri most likely discussing history in this canto to 

Paradiso, Chapter 7

Beatrice has just told Dante the story of Christ's crucificixion. Watch this animated version to visualize what happened. (This annotation contains a video)
Which line from the text shows why Beatrice and the souls consider Christ's crucifixion as necessary? 
Which popular belief about Christ is revealed through these Biblical stories? 
This line furthers Beatrice's point that Christ had to die because man did not have the power to be free independently.  

Paradiso, Chapter 8

Venus is known to be the Goddess of Love. Read to find out why she is mentioned in this religious poem.  (This annotation contains an image)
In 2-3 sentences, explain what Dante is telling the reader about what the Earth was like before the time of Christ.  
This soul is prophesizing that his brother is still alive. Why do you think these souls think about their families so much? Could it be out of loneliness? 
Based on these lines, how does Charles view God? 

Paradiso, Chapter 9

By using the possessive word "thy," we can tell that Clemence is Charles' wife.  
As Dante speaks to Clemence, what does he say will happen to her family? 
This imagery is gruesome. Why would Dante narrate a description such as this in Heaven? 
Why does Dante use the highlighted simile in this description? 
Which line from the text shows the political corruption of the priests in Florence? 
Folco shares good news with Dante. He tells him that Florence will soon be free of sin. Remember, the souls are able to see into the future.  

Paradiso, Chapter 10

What do these lines reveal about how Dante feels? 
In his prayers, why does Dante compare Beatrice to an eclipse? 
This is an image of an eclipse. (This annotation contains an image)
Why is Dante now using words like "angelic" to describe his experience? How do these words compare to the words he used while visiting the Inferno? 
What is the mood of this canto? 

Paradiso, Chapter 11

What does this figurative language reveal about Dante's experience? 
Dante is suggesting that no one around him could possibly understand the joy he is experiencing in Heaven.  
Which religious event is being described in these lines? 
This is a commentary on wealth. Dante is telling the reader that Bernard gave up all of his worldly possessions to live like a saint. What is to be learned from this story? 
This is a popular image of Jesus (the shepherd) and his flock (Christians).  (This annotation contains an image)
What lesson is Saint Thomas revealing by telling Dante the story of the shepherd? 

Paradiso, Chapter 12

In 3-4 sentences, summarize what has been discussed in this canto thus far.  
Astronomy plays a large role in this religious poem. The phrase "long career the sun" shows that the Sun is not merely a star, but that it has a purpose.  
The phrase "garden catholic is watered" most likely means 
The courageous man Beatrice is referring to is Saint Thomas. She is teaching Dante about Heaven and the saints.  

Paradiso, Chapter 13

This "steadfast rock" refers to the planet Venus. Dante believes that is where he is going. 
Alighieri most likely opens up the canto with an anecdote about Venus because 
These lines are commenting on which pervasive theme in this poem? 
Is this line suggesting that people become perfect in Heaven? 

Paradiso, Chapter 14

Dante has encountered characters on his journey who have influenced him in different ways. Explain how their influence changes as he moves through the realms. Use evidence from the text to support your assertion. 
This line suggests that Dante still has lessons to learn about Christianity. It signals to the reader that his journey is not over.  
In popular culture, the image of the Holy Spirit is often a dove. Does this image along with Dante's descriptions? (This annotation contains an image)
In these lines, Dante is ___________ by Beatrice's beauty, so he decides to look away. 

Paradiso, Chapter 15

Based on the title, we can tell this canto will teach us about Florence in 
In these lines, God has seized the singing. This is the first action we see from God. Notice Dante's reaction as you continue reading.  
This soul is "more joyous" than those in the "gladsome crowd" because he did more 
Dante seems to confide in Beatrice now for support; similar to the way he did with Virgil. What do you think will become of their relationship? 
In 2-3 sentences, explain how Florence was different in the "olden days." Use evidence from the anecdote to support your summary.  
The soul most likely references "Trojans" and stories of war because men were proud of their battles back in those days. This anecdote aligns with the topic of this canto.  

Paradiso, Chapter 16

Dante addresses Cacciaguida with the pronoun "You" as a sign of respect. He feels at home with this soul and is learning a great deal from him.  
Which line from the text shows why Dante now addresses Cacciaguida as "you"? 
The image of a lamb is another biblical reference. Alighieri inserts these images to create a biblical tone in the poem. Notice other religious images as you read and consider why they are included. (This annotation contains an image)
Which city is Cacciaguida referring to? 
Why does Cacciaguida cite these families in his story about Florence? 
It is interesting to notice that the cities in this poem are referred to as women. This shows how much the cities mean to the people of Italy. A city cannot literally "whence to weep." 

Paradiso, Chapter 17

Who is speaking in these lines? 
As Cacciaguida speaks, the mood of the canto go from joyous to volatile. This shift indicates that Dante will encounter something alarming. What news will he bring to Dante? 
In 2-3 sentences, explain the news Cacciaguida gives Dante that prompts him to say "blow to deal me." 
Based on Dante's words, it is clear that he is having a poor reaction to Cacciaguida's premonition.  

Paradiso, Chapter 18

Based on these lines, what is Beatrice's reaction to the news Dante receives from Cacciaguida? 
Even though Beatrice comforts Dante, she is telling him that Cacciaguida has more news and that he must listen. She seems to be a no-nonsense nurturer.  
Dante is comparing the souls of Jupiter to flocks of birds in the sky. This is another example of Alighieri's ability to create strong imagery.  
Why does Dante refer to the souls as "genius"? 

Paradiso, Chapter 19

With their voices and movements, the souls have managed to create an Eagle in the sky. 
Why did Alighieri include the phrase "And it began" in this section of the canto? 
The eagle is known to be a bird symbolizing power. It is known as the ruler of the sky. Why do you think Alighieri chose to include this animal to speak to Dante and not another? (This annotation contains an image)
By asking this question, what is Dante trying to figure out? 
Dante is wondering why God has license to judge those he does not know personally. This is a striking observation. Is Dante beginning to question God's motives? If yes, how does this affect his journey? 
The souls discuss sinful families quite a bit in this text. It creates a sense of fear in the poem; a fear of exposure and ridicule if one does not obey the rules of God.  
By exposing the sins of others, what can we infer about Alighieri's view of God? 

Paradiso, Chapter 20

Alighieri finally discloses the purpose of discussing the solar system in this text. Why is it discussed? 
The eagle is disclosing the images and souls that make up its body to teach Dante a lesson. Read on to discover what Dante learns. 
The eagle is telling Dante that its eyes are composed of six of the highest souls. This is a great honor. The eagle will surely send Dante on the right path.  
Which line from the text shows why the souls are considered the six highest souls in Heaven? 

Paradiso, Chapter 21

Based on Beatrice's words, why won't she smile at Dante? 
Beatrice announces that they are now in the "seventh splendor" which is the Seven Circle of Heaven. The circles align with the planets. Based on this image, which planet will be discussed in this canto? (This annotation contains an image)
Why won't the souls sings in this circle of Heaven? 
Through this dialogue, the soul is telling Dante that all of the soul's actions and words are "directed" by God who is "light divine." The souls here are pure and are holy men and women. 
These souls have been asked by God to descend and speak to Dante. They are coming down on a ladder which is often seen in biblical images and art. (This annotation contains an image)
The phrase "the thunder so o'ercame me" indicates that Dante __________ because the souls' voices were overwhelming.  

Paradiso, Chapter 22

Beatrice is introducing Dante to a slew of new souls who are known as celebrities in Heaven. Read to see if you recognize any of their names from history.  
Since the souls have made Dante feel confident and comfortable in their presence, he wants 
Why does Beatrice utter this sentence? 
Dante is eager to learn and get closer to God. As a good mentor and influencer, Beatrice is encouraging him to be humble and recognize the progress he has already made. 

Paradiso, Chapter 23

Beatrice has spotted Christ's troops. Could God be with them? Beatrice and Dante are now in the Either Circle of Heaven. They are swiftly approaching God. 
What is this "Sun" that Dante is seeing? 
Watch this video about the solar system to learn and notice that the planets revolve around the Sun. After the video, answer the following question.  (This annotation contains a video)
In 2-3 sentences, explain why Alighieri compares God to the Sun. Consider what you have learned about the solar system and the circles of Heaven. 

Paradiso, Chapter 24

The "great supper" is a reference to The Last Supper which was a famous gathering. At that gathering, Christ shared bread and wine with Mary and his disciples.  (This annotation contains an image)
What is Beatrice asking the souls? 
Confession is a tenant of Catholicism. Watch this video to learn why religious people go to confession. (This annotation contains a video)
Which central idea do these lines reveal? 
In these lines, Dante reveals that he is open to 
Through this dialogue, Saint Peter is affirming Dante's faith. Dante has openly and outwardly invoked God's law like he never has before.  

Paradiso, Chapter 25

What is happening in this line? 
This is a turning point for Dante on his journey toward absolution. His faith has been affirmed, and he has been welcomed into the kingdom of Heaven. 
The ancient Scriptures are known to be the original documents created by Christ's disciples based on Christ's lectures. (This annotation contains an image)
Which land is Dante referring to? 

Paradiso, Chapter 26

Based on the phrase "my vision quenched," what has happened to Dante? 
Based on these commands, it is clear that the saints, in conjunction with Beatrice, have become mentors to Dante. His hardest lessons are yet to come. 
In this response, Dante is giving the biblical answer as to why one should love God. The answers are that God created Earth and God died so that humans could live. 
The reactions from the others show that Dante's answer is 
Which central idea about God is revealed in this line? 
Adam is telling Dante that he lived in the Garden of Eden only for seven hours. What is the significance of this? (This annotation contains an image)

Paradiso, Chapter 27

Notice the dialogue that is now taking place. How has the mood of the poem shifted? 
Peter and the souls are upset because Peter got news that the current Pope Boniface is corrupting the city once again.  (This annotation contains an image)
Dante is looking down upon Earth and thinking about the people there. 
Beatrice is ranting about the _______ that has plagued the Earth and made the people stray from God's path. 

Paradiso, Chapter 28

In 3-4 sentences explain what Dante's sees in Beatrice's eyes and determine its significance.  
The "circle of fire" refers to the rings of light in Beatrice's eyes. This symbol of a circle repeats throughout the poem. What does it mean? Why a ring? 
What do these descriptions reveal about the human body? 
Beatrice is telling Dante that many scholars have investigated the connection between God's glory, the solar system and the human body. This is new information Dante acquires to better understand Christian faith. 

Paradiso, Chapter 29

What do these stories about the origins of the universe inspire the reader to consider? 
Which "art" is Dante referring to? 
Watch this video about the difference between evolutionism and creationism then respond to the following question. Keep in mind that the author of this video has a strong bias. (This annotation contains a video)
Based on your understanding of creationism and evolution, how does Alighieri view creationism?  

Paradiso, Chapter 30

Dante is now speaking from the perspective of being on Earth. This brings the story full circle. Authors will often place characters back to where they started to show how the characters have changed. 
Dante most likely describes what the stars look like from Earth to show 
Through the descriptions of the river, Alighieri is employing 
Everything in Heaven is amplified and has a figurative meaning. This river is not just a river. It a means for Dante to learn a lesson and see things from a Godly perspective.  
What does the continual reference to Florence reveal about the characters? 
This empty crown is reserved for Henry the VIII who is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the pope and the Roman Catholic Church. (This annotation contains an image)

Paradiso, Chapter 31

Dante is ascending higher into the ranks of Heaven, and the sights are becoming more and more beautiful. He is overwhelmed by what he sees. 
Which line from the text shows Dante's gratitude for Heaven? 
What is Dante professing in these lines? 
Beatrice does not respond to Dante with words. Instead, she smiles at him and turns her face back toward God. Is she rejecting him? 

Paradiso, Chapter 32

Based on his actions and words, what is Bernard's attitude toward Mary? 
Although Saint Bernard has his attention focused on Mary, he quickly realizes that his duty is to teach Dante. What did Dante do to attain such focused attention from saints? 
Dante is learning more Christian history. Here he learns that children were to be deemed innocent and free of sin. However, later, the rules were changed. Children had to be circumcised (if male) and baptized in order to be received into the kingdom of Heaven. Watch this video to learn more about Christian traditions and why they exist.  (This annotation contains a video)
Do you think it is "Godly" to require people to go through traditions such as baptism before they can be perceived as Christian? Why or why not? 
Hosanna is a liturgical word in Judaism and Christianity used to give a shout of praise or sign of adoration to God. Listen to this song to understand the meaning behind the term. (This annotation contains a video)
Bernard shows Dante that they must turn to _______ before they can converse with God. 

Paradiso, Chapter 33

Bernard realizes he must pray to Mary and converse with her before ascending higher because 
This action indicates that Dante no longer needs a leader or a teacher to guide him through the realms. He has learned the ways of the Lord. 
Quiz Three: Paradiso