The Prince and the Pauper
The novel represents Twain's first attempt at historical fiction. Set in 1547, it tells the story of two young boys who are identical in appearance: Tom Canty, a pauper who lives with his abusive father in Offal Court off Pudding Lane in London, and Prince Edward, son of King Henry VIII. (From feedbooks.com)
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Chapter 1 - The birth of the Prince and the Pauper
Edward Tudor and Tom Canty are born into two very different worlds. The differences in the worlds they are born into becomes very important as the story moves along. Write a brief summary in the space provided that compares and contrasts the early lives of these two boys.
Edward Tudor is the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour. Edward was born in 1537 and became the King of England until his death in 1553. The image below is a portrait of Edward. (This annotation contains an image)
Mark Twain tells his reader the time (autumn of the 16th century) and place (the ancient city of London) at the very beginning of the story. The where and the when of a story is called the setting. The video below explains setting in more detail. (This annotation contains a video)
Chapter 2 - Tom's early life
Do you know what "picturesque" means? There is an easy way to discover the meaning of picturesque and other unfamiliar words. You can look up any word in the text of the book or the text of the questions and answers? Just click (or press on mobile devices) the word you want to define and hold until the blue text selector pops up. When you release, a define option will appear. Since it's so easy to look up words, make sure you use this feature frequently... Is there a word on this page you need to look up?
Use the define feature to read the definitions for mendicancy. Which of the words below is a synonym for mendicancy as it use in the passage?
What is Tom's greatest wish?
Chapter 3 - Tom's meeting with the Prince
You might find it interesting that Temple Bar is the only surviving gateway between the City of London and the City of Westminister. The image below shows the Temple Bar as it looks today. (This annotation contains an image)
The Palace of Westminster is now used as the meeting place for the two houses of the English Parliament. The image below shows the Palace of Westminster on the shore of the River Thames. (This annotation contains an image)
Who does the word grand-dam refer to?
Which of the choices below does Tom see as a disadvantage to living in Offal Court?
WIth the selected text, Mr. Twain begins an exploration of the themes of appearance and identity. The theme or central idea of a text is usually a view about life and how people behave. Think about how differently Tom and Edward are treated even though they look identical. The video below explains theme and central idea. (This annotation contains a video)
Chapter 4 - The Prince's troubles begin
What is the problem with Edward's plan to trade places with Tom?
According to the text, Edward refers to learning a lesson. What is the lesson that he has just learned?
Chapter 5 - Tom as a patrician
Lady Jane Grey is the second cousin of Edward. She goes on to become the Queen of England for nine days until she is executed for treason. The image below shows a portrait of Lady Jane Grey. (This annotation contains an image)
Henry VIII is the King of England and Edward's father. The image below shows a portrait of Henry VIII as he is described in the story. (This annotation contains an image)
What does King Henry VIII say is the source of the Prince's madness? What is his remedy?
Chapter 6 - Tom receives instructions
Use the Define feature to read the definition for obeisance. Which of the words below is an antonym for obeisance as it is used in the passage?
Princess Elizabeth is the daughter of King Henry VIII and his second wife Anne Boleyn. She becomes Queen Elizabeth I in November of 1558. The portrait below shows a young Elizabeth. (This annotation contains an image)
St. John sees differences in the prince which are not easily explained. Which of the choices below is NOT a difference that St. John makes between Tom and Edward?
Chapter 7 - Tom's first royal dinner
What is the job of the Taster according to the text?
Catherine Parr is the last of Henry VIII's six wives. She is Queen of England from 1543 to 1547. The portrait below shows Catherine Parr. (This annotation contains an image)
Chapter 8 - The question of the Seal
A symbol is a word or object that stands for another word or object. The Great Seal of the Realm is a symbol of the kings approval, will, and power. The video below further explains symbolism. (This annotation contains a video)
Chapter 9 - The river pageant
What is the author's purpose for including the description of the river pageant at this point in the text?
Chapter 10 - The Prince in the toils
Reread the following excerpts from the novel.Excerpt 1: “The mother fell on her knees before the Prince, put her hands upon his shoulders, and gazed yearningly into his face through her rising tears. Then she said–"Excerpt 2: "Oh, my poor boy! Thy foolish reading hath wrought its woeful work at last, and ta'en thy wit away. Ah! why did'st thou cleave to it when I so warned thee 'gainst it? Thou'st broke thy mother's heart.”In the space provided, compare and contrast the two forms of language the author uses in the novel.
How are the thoughts of Tom's mother similar to those of Lord St. John?
There are many references to clothing throughout the story. The selected text is a reference to Edward being dressed in rags. Twain develops another central idea or theme in the story: the clothes make the man. Think about how each boy is treated once they have traded clothing. What do you think Twain is trying to tell his audience by including this theme?
Why are John Canty and his family fleeing the city?
Chapter 11 - At Guildhall
Guildhall has been the town hall for the City of London since 1440. The image below shows Guildhall as it looks today. (This annotation contains an image)
The image shows the statues of Gog and Magog in Guildhall. (This annotation contains an image)
King Henry VIII dies at the Palace of Whitehall on January 28, 1547. The cause of death is uncertain, but most scholars believe he dies from complications due to untreated type II diabetes, obesity, and a brain injury suffered during a 1536 jousting event.
Chapter 12 - The Prince and his deliverer
What is the author's purpose for including the highly descriptive passage about the London Bridge?
The image below shows the London Bridge as it looked during the reign of Edward VI. It does appear to be a town built across the River Thames. (This annotation contains an image)
What is it about Edward's character that appeals to Hendon?
The Prince of Wales is the title granted to the heir of the British Monarch. The current Prince of Wales is Prince Charles, the sone of Queen Elizabeth II. His photo is shown below. (This annotation contains an image)
Why does Hendon continue treating Edward like the King even though he does not believe the boy is royalty?
Hendon Hall is also known as Hendon Manor. King Edward VI gave the Manor to the Earl of Pembroke for his service to the crown in 1569. The mansion is now a hotel. The image below shows Hendon Hall as it looks today. (This annotation contains an image)
Use the Define feature to read the definition for certes. Which of the words below is an antonym for certes as it is used in the passage?
King John ruled England from 1199 until his death in 1216. He is best known as the king who signed the Magna Carta in 1215. The image below is a drawing of King John. (This annotation contains an image)
How does the selected text help to develop the theme or central idea of 'the clothing makes the man' in the text?
Chapter 13 - The disappearance of the Prince
Mood is a literary element that authors use to create an emotional response in the reader. Mood can be created using setting, tone, theme and diction. The selected text is an example of creating mood using diction or word choice. Twain uses words such as "merry," "dearlee," "admiringly," "grandeur," "majesty," and "goodly" to develop a tone of pleasure or happiness for Hendon. The video below explains mood as well as tone. (This annotation contains a video)
Carefully read the text from the story below.“...be pleased to rise, my liege!–he answereth not–what ho, my liege!–of a truth must I profane his sacred person with a touch, sith his slumber is deaf to speech. What!”In the space provided, write the text as one might say it today.
Who does Hendon refer to as a "scurvy villain" in the selected text?
Chapter 14 - 'Le Roi est mort—vive le Roi.'
The selected text is French for 'The King is dead -- long live the king.' The saying is traditionally spoken when a new monarch takes the throne.
Twain purposefully includes the dreams of Tom and Edward followed by their waking in the real world. How would you describe their dreams? How would you describe their realities? Why do you think Twain draws a line between dreams and reality?
Why is Tom concerned about the timing of Henry's funeral?
Mary I of England was the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. She became the queen upon Edward's death in 1553. Mary I is called "Bloody Mary" because of the large number of she protestants she had executed during her reign. The image below is a portrait of Mary I. (This annotation contains an image)
What does the whipping-boy mean when he says, "My back is my bread, O my gracious liege! If I go idle, I starve?"
As mentioned earlier in the text, The Great Seal of the Realm is a symbol of the king's power and will. The missing Seal is symbolic of the absence or loss of the king's power.
Chapter 15 - Tom as King
What does the selected text reveal about Tom's character?
An earl is a rank of nobility that falls between the highest (king) and lowest (gentleman) ranks of nobility.
Tom knows the accused man. How does he know him?
Edward Seymour (1539 to 1621) was the 1st Earl of Hertford. He is best known for angering Queen Elizabeth I by marrying more than one woman. The image below represents the Earl of Hertford. (This annotation contains an image)
Use your own words to summarize the case against the man accused of poisoning of the victim in Islington. Do you believe the man is guilty?
Mark Twain has a very good grasp of the way English was spoken during the 15th and 16th centuries in Britain. What do you think this grasp of language and the depth of historical detail reveal about the author?
Who does "THAT OTHER" refer to as it used in the passage?
People during the time of Henry VIII believed in witchcraft. Many innocent women who were branded as witches were labelled as heretics and put to death after being tortured into confessing. The outcome of the general belief in witches and witchcraft led to witch hunts across Europe.
What does the selected text reveal about the people of the court?
Chapter 16 - The State Dinner
Mood is the literary device that authors use to create an emotional response in the reader. The selected text is used to develop a mood of excitement and majesty. Twain sets the mood by using the setting in the selected example.
Which of the adjectives below explains how Tom is feeling as he enters the dining hall?
Chapter 17 - Foo-foo the First
Why does Miles Hendon believe Edward has gone to Hendon Hall?
The Tabard Inn is an actual location in Southwark, London, England. The tavern was built in 1307. It is most famous as the place where the pilgrims in Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales" meet on their way to Canterbury. The building was demolished in 1873. The image below shows the Tabard prior to its destruction. (This annotation contains an image)
The point of view of a story is how the author allows the reader to see what is happening in the story. "The Prince and the Pauper" is told from the first person point of view. The novel is unique in that the narrator would appear to be a third person narrator who moves in and out of the character's thoughts. The narrator is not telling the story from the third person point of view because he refers to himself in the first person using the pronoun "I." The video below explains point of view. (This annotation contains a video)
The people in the barn are elated that John Hobbs has killed a priest.Which excerpt from the text supports this inference?
"The Prince and the Pauper" is a satire. Satire is a literary device used by authors to criticize or reveal the foolishness or corruption of a society. In Chapter 17 Twain is criticizing the traditional monarchy by having the characters explain how Henry's laws have hurt the common person. Through the dialogue of his characters, the reader learns that Twain does not agree with any form of government that places absolute power in the hands of one person.
A mooncalf is a foolish or absentminded person. Edward is dubbed the King of Fools.
Chapter 18 - The Prince with the tramps
Most people fear the group enough to move out of their way. Do you believe the members of the group would be treated the same way if they were alone?
In the space provided, explain how the selected text helps develop the theme or central idea of clothing making the man.
According to the text, what is the source of the soft touch that wakes Edward?
Chapter 19 - The Prince with the peasants
The selected text shows a different side of Edward's character than we have seen before. His experiences as a pauper have humbled him. Do you think his experiences will influence the way he rules England once he is back to his rightful place?
Bedlam refers to the Bethlem Royal Hospital in London, United Kingdom. The purpose of the hospital is to treat mental illness. The image below shows Bedlam as it looks today. (This annotation contains an image)
Why does Edward decide to leave the woman and her two daughters?
Chapter 20 - The Prince and the hermit
Simile or metaphor? The selected text is an example of a literary comparison that may not be easily labelled as a simile or metaphor. Similes are comparisons using like or its equivalent. Metaphors are comparisons that do not use like or its equivalent. Which type of comparison do you think the selected text is?
The hermit tells Edward how to become a holy man. Which of the actions below is NOT required for Edward to live with the hermit?
A hair shirt or cilice is a shirt made of rough animal hair that is worn against the skin as a way of atoning for one's sins. The image is an example of a hair shirt. (This annotation contains an image)
An archangel is an angel of high rank. Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael are the three most common archangels in western religions. The painting below shows the archangel Michael. (This annotation contains an image)
What does the selected text reveal about the hermit's character? Use examples from the passage to support your response.
Chapter 21 - Hendon to the rescue
Simile or metaphor? The selected text is a simile because it uses the word "resembled." Resembled is a synonym for "seemed like."
What does the hermit mean when he calls Edward the "Seed of the Church's spoiler"?
Twain often uses language that looks similar to words we use today. The selected word "despatch" looks very similar to the word "dispatch." A quick check using the define feature will tell you that both words mean the same thing. Have you noticed other words that are slightly different than terms we use today but mean the same thing?
Why does Hendon believe that Edward complied with the Hermit's request to go on an errand?
Chapter 22 - A victim of treachery
Use the Define feature to read the definition for railleries. Which of the sentences below uses railleries in the same way it is used in the text?
"Game-Cocks" are roosters that are bred to fight. The image below shows a game-cock. (This annotation contains an image)
The term "tinker" comes from the 13th century monicker "tinkler" which refers to an unskilled repairman. So many gypsies became tinkers that the term became synonymous with gypsy.
Which of the sentences below explains why Hugo is overjoyed that Edward has been made the responsibility of the thieves?
Summarize in your own words Hugo's plan to repay Edward for tattling on him earlier in the story. Explain why Hugo was or was not successful.
Chapter 23 - The Prince a prisoner
Twain seems to suggest that the monarchs who make the laws should travel the countryside to see how the laws affect the common people. It is obvious from the selected text that Henry VIII knew very little about justice and the harshness of the laws educed by the common people. Do you think your elected officials should travel around the country in order to see how their laws affect the people they are meant to protect?
How does the woman save Edward from being hanged?
Chapter 24 - The escape
Explain how Miles Hendon convinces the constable to allow Edward to escape.
Non compos mentis translates as "Not of sound mind." Lex talionis translates to "law of retaliation." Sic transit gloria mundi translates to "thus passes the glory of the world."
Chapter 25 - Hendon Hall
"Sanctum Sanctorum" is a Latin phrase meaning Holy of Holies. The Sanctum Sanctorum is a reference to the holiest place in the temple in Jerusalem.
What inference can be drawn from the information in the selected text?
The irony of Miles's situation is not lost on Edward in that it now mirrors his own. Situational irony occurs when the outcome of a situation is the opposite of what the reader expects. The video below explains situational irony in greater depth. (This annotation contains a video)
Use the space provided to list two or more pieces of evidence from the selected paragraph that support the inference that Lady Edith does recognize Miles and is not being truthful.
Chapter 26 - Disowned
Edward has a plan to notify his Uncle that he is at Hendon Hall. Unknown to Edward there is a problem with this plan. What is the problem with Edward's plan to notify Lord Hertford?
What does the selected text reveal about Lady Edith's character?
Chapter 27 - In prison
A "prodigal" is a person who leaves home and behaves recklessly, but later makes a repentant return.
Why does Blake Andrews pretend not to know Miles?
What does Hugh hope to gain from attending the coronation?
How do you think Edward's experiences with the two women and the other prisoners will change his views on law and mercy?
Edward VI is a protestant king haven been raised by his father in the Church of England. Henry VIII, as the head of the church, persecuted Baptists for not believing in infant baptism among other differences. It is unfortunate that very little changed during the reign of Edward VI. Edward executed at least two Baptists during his short kingship.
The selected passage is very important because it provides a glimpse into the social views of the author. Mark Twain is speaking through Edward in the selected passage. He has two points to make in doing so. First, he is telling the reader that a king should be measured against his own laws. If the laws be too severe for a king to endure, then they are too severe for the people to endure. Secondly, kings should know how laws are enforced and how the common people live.
Chapter 28 - The sacrifice
Use the Define feature to read the definitions for sardonic. Which of the words below is a synonym (the same in meaning) as sardonic as it is used in the passage?
Chapter 29 - To London
Use the define feature to read the definition for imputation. Which of the words below is an antonym (the opposite in meaning) for imputation as it is used in the passage?
Chapter 30 - Tom's progress
Use your own words to explain how Tom Canty has changed since becoming the King of England.
Westminster Abbey is a church located in the City of Westminster, which is part of the wider London borough. It is the traditional coronation place for the British monarchy. The image below shows Westminster Abbey. (This annotation contains an image)
Chapter 31 - The Recognition procession
The Tower of London has been used as many different things following its construction in 1066. It has been used as a royal residence, a treasury, a prison, and is currently a museum housing the crown jewels. Monarchs stayed in the Tower temporarily before their coronation beginning in 1547. The image below shows the Tower of London. (This annotation contains an image)
Based on the evidence in the text, the reader can infer that a largess is _____________.
The plot, or events that make up a story, of a text is driven by cause and effect relationships. The cause is what happens and the result is the effect. Watch the short video below to learn more about cause and effect. (This annotation contains a video)
Tom begins the procession as a confident and joyful new king. His attitude changes abruptly to one of sadness and feelings of imprisonment when he sees and denies knowing his mother. This is an example of a cause and effect relationship. Which part of this scene is the effect?
Chapter 32 - Coronation Day
The image below shows the interior of Westminster Abbey as Twain's narrator might see it. (This annotation contains an image)
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the leader of the Church of England. He takes part in most national ceremonies including coronations.
How does the Lord Protector plan to reveal the true Prince of Wales?
Which character hid the missing Great Seal?
The return of the Great Seal of the Realm symbolizes the return of the king's will and power now that Edward has reclaimed his rightful place.
Chapter 33 - Edward as King
Explain how the selected text help to develop the theme of clothes making the man in the novel.
Hendon is freed and escorted away by the guards. What can the reader infer from the this development in the text?
Which of the gifts below is NOT bestowed by King Edward VI on Tom Canty for his good deeds while on the throne of England?
Justice and retribution
Use your own words to explain how the character of Edward changed from the beginning of the story to the end. How do these changes impact his kingship?