Around the World in Seventy-Two Days and Other Writings
Born Elizabeth Jane Cochran, Nellie Bly was renowned as America's first 'girl stunt reporter'. She was a pioneer of investigative journalism, including an exposé of patient treatment at a mental asylum and a travelogue from her record-breaking race around the world in emulation of Phileas Fogg. This volume, the only printed and edited collection of Bly's writings, includes her best-known works as well as many lesser-known pieces that capture the breadth of her career from her fierce opinion pieces to her remarkable World War I reporting.
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Bly's perseverance and "strong sense of self" are central themes throughout the text. As you read, look for elements that define this and grounds that support this.
Consider the claim: Nellie Bly didn't set out to be liked; she set out to be a great journalist. Do you think that women need to concede amicability in order to be a success?
Jay Gatsby is the title character from F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby. Click on the link below for a subject characterization and summary of Gatsby's character. (This annotation contains a link)
Bly can be considered a feminist because she strove to be considered an equal to her male counterparts. She was determined to prove that women could surmount the gender obstacle and prove themselves as useful as a male in the same role. Do you think the definition of feminism has changed over the past 150 years? If you do a Google search of feminism and anti-feminism, are you surprised by the results?
Nellie Bly embraced the sensationalism that surrounded her career in order to benefit her career.
The editor of the text believes that to appreciate Bly's prose one must know the context. Do you agree that in order to fully grasp the sensationalism of Bly's feats, you must know the historical and social context of her work?
The role of women was evolving as Bly's career developed. The mid to late nineteenth century was the birth of the women's suffrage movement. Due to factors such as industrialization, immigration, and eventually war, women began working outside the home in order to help support their families. Women also began receiving educations comparable to those of men.
The structure of the text follows Nellie Bly's career path. It begins with her earliest published work and ends with excerpts from her advice column. This is done purposefully in order to develop a central idea or claim in the text: perseverance. In order to succeed in any endeavor and overcome obstacles, Nellie Bly, her subjects, and her audience have one commonality: they persevere. As you read the text, consider the arguments that Bly develops through her articles and pieces. View the video clip below to review the elements of the Toulmin Model of Argument. (This annotation contains a video)
Bly acknowledges that "girls, since the existence of Eve, have been a source of worriment." This is an example of which literary device?
Though this article was written in the late nineteenth century, the issues of a gender gap in pay still exist today. Women typically earn seventy-five cents for every dollar men earn in the same position, with comparable experience and education. Below is an article from the New York Times that explores the current relationship between pay gap and gender issues. (This annotation contains a link)
Bly's coverage in Mexico contrasts sharply with the other pieces and columns that women journalists were expected to produce. Her articles about the working people, locals, and their ordinary lives develop the central claim or idea of perseverance. As you read, consider how the Mexican people persevere.
Upon earning the assignment to report from Mexico, Bly chooses to focus her articles about the people and other lesser known elements of the Mexican culture rather than the tourist attractions. Which literary device does she employ in order to illustrate the contrasts between the Mexican people and Americans or Europeans?
Bly portrays the working poor in Mexico as an unappreciated group of people who "live and they die." Yet, this group of people strive to learn and use every spare cent they have to gain some sort of education. Consider Bly's audience. What is she implying about the American view of the working poor?
Do you think that Bly would be able to infiltrate an institution today by simply feigning a mental illness? Do you think that there is a better system in place to deem people mentally unfit?
Blackwell's Island was the first lunatic asylum in the city of New York. For more information about the history and conditions in the asylum, please click on the link below. (This annotation contains a link)
Upon preparing for her undercover work, Bly acknowledges that she may not be able to bathe for "days and it may be -- for longer." She also prepares to appear crazy by having "staring eyes." This implies that the culture was easily convinced by what they witnessed versus what they knew to be true. As you read more of Bly's account, identify other examples of people judging by appearances versus the verifiable truth.
Bly includes details such as the crowding in the boarding house, the lack of manners among the guests and the servants, and the poor quality food in order to convey which claim?
Based on Bly's description of her "insanity," do you think she would convince a contemporary crowd of her mental illness? Considering the historical context, why do you think the women in the boarding house are a more easily influenced audience?
For what purpose does Bly include the kind and courageous description of Mrs. Caine?
Throughout her account of her time as a mentally ill patient, she describes two reactions to her insanity: the few people who are kind and sympathetic and those who abuse the mentally ill. Even at her stay at the boarding house, there are women who are "not afraid of [Bly] had wanted to have some amusement at [Bly's] expense." Bly's articles throughout her career demonstrate the strength of the human spirit but also illustrate how inhumane people can be.
According to Bly, she visited the police station "only ten days before" and had a conversation with Captain McCullagh for an article she was writing. She is fearful he would recognize her, but fortunately does not. What does this imply about Captain McCullagh?
Bly uses sensory imagery in order to help develop grounds for her argument. She depicts the men and women around her "with stories printed on their faces of hard lives, abuse, and poverty." In some ways, these people are like Bly: they are faced with economic and social obstacles that limit their ability to live fulfilling lives. In Bly's case, she surmounts those obstacles, but it is not a possibility for all of the people in that situation.
Based on the highlighted passage, which term best describes the judge in Bly's case?
Bly includes the anecdote about her interaction with the judge in order to convey the biases and inconsistencies of the legal system. What would have been Bly's fate if the judge had not been so partial to Bly?
There are still a few steps for Bly to be committed to the asylum and one step is a an "examination" by a doctor. This is a simple physical, and Bly astutely ponders "how the heart of an insane person" sounds different than that of a sane person. Remember that Bly is writing an expose about the institution. She develops her argument by simply documenting the inconsistencies and atrocities.
As Bly reaches Bellevue, she describes "a rough-looking man" who "attempted to drag [her] out as if [she] had the strength of an elephant and would resist." He relents when the accompanying doctor orders him to leave Bly alone. What claim does this anecdote serve as grounds for?
Many of the patients that Bly encounters while undercover are not mentally ill at all. They are placed in the asylum due to financial constraints or because they are simply not able to communicate with the judges and the doctors.
Bly includes her conversation with Mary in regards to her "pennies" to illustrate
Bly demonstrates the abuses that people suffered while in the institution. In the case of Mrs. Louise Schanz, she simply does not speak English and cannot defend herself or insist she is not insane. In terms of another patient, she is simply suffering from "nervous debility." Bly conveys that it does not matter why these women were sent here; once they are deemed mentally ill, they are mistreated and abused as if they are subhuman.
Bly includes a litany of the deplorable conditions while she in the care of New York State in order to illustrate
You must remember that once Bly was committed to the asylum, she ceased "acting" mentally ill. She answered the doctor's questions with clarity and there was never a moment that she wasn't lucid. Her treatment did not deviate from those who were genuinely suffering from mental illness.
Based on Bly's descriptions of the people who worked at Bellvue and Blackwell's asylum, which word characterizes them?
Consider for a moment Bly's perspective as she is undercover for this article. She is certain she is not crazy, and she meets women who are also not insane. Bly knows that she will eventually (within ten days) regain her freedom. Bly also knows that most if not all of these women will never leave the asylum alive again.
Even though the nurse Miss Grupe speaks German, she refuses to help the patient Mrs. Schanz communicate with the doctors. Bly believes that this is because Miss Grupe "proved to be one of those people who are ashamed of their nationality." Based on your knowledge of the historical context, is this an accurate assumption? What are other possible reasons why Miss Grupe does not want to assist the patient? Use textual evidence to support your response.
Bly includes the dialogue between the doctor and the nurse to illustrate what about their dynamic?
The conditions in the asylum are deplorable in every way imaginable. The patients were forced to endure cold, unsanitary, and uncomfortable living conditions and a lack of edible food. Patients who did not die from physical abuse or attempted suicides, would often become sick and their health would quickly deteriorate.
When Bly asks the staff for simple items such as a nightgown, the nurse replies "This is charity, and you should be thankful for what you get." This implies that
When Bly expresses valid concerns to the doctors, they agree with her that the conditions are not ideal and in some cases dangerous, but they do not offer to improve the conditions. This is grounds to support Bly's claim that people involved with the mental health system are apathetic to the needs of the patients.
Why does Miss Grady only return Bly's notebook to her and not her pencil?
According to Bly's account, the nurses and other staff members took pleasure in taunting, teasing, and abusing the patients. The staff insisted the patients sit on benches for hours at a time without relief. There was no purpose for these extended sits.
Bly is excellent at stating a claim and providing grounds to support that claim. One reason why she is so successful is because of her writing style. She has the ability to endear or vilify her subjects through her use of sensory imagery, dialogue, and characterization. Bly also employs rhetorical appeals to her audience. View the video below to outline the difference between ethos, pathos, and logos in rhetoric. (This annotation contains a video)
Bly consistently complains about the cold the patients were forced to endure. She notes that "the nurses had on heavy undergarments and coats, but the doctors refused to give us shawls." Which appeal does Bly employ here?
Bly points out the irony in the treatment of the patients at the asylum: they are sent to the institution to receive treatment to be better, but instead they are made worse due to the reprehensible conditions. People who are sane and mistakenly admitted would easily be driven insane by the treatment.
Based on Bly's account, the nurses teased patients in order to make the patients upset and give the nurses an excuse to inflict physical punishment. Bly includes these anecdotes in order to illustrate
Unfortunately, the patients at the asylum are targeted by the abusive staff members because the staff members know they have no means of defense. This type of behavior still occurs various publicly run facitilites today. Recently, there has been much news coverage about the abuses in the VA (Veteran's Affairs) hospitals. Click on the link below to read an article about the wait lists for patients to be seen at VA hospitals and the deadly implications of not following protocol or procedures. (This annotation contains a link)
Bly includes details about the staff's use of "profane language" in order to illustrate
Consider how desperate these patients must be that they spend their time dreaming about the food they would consume if they were released. They have no semblance of an existence within the confines of the asylum. What warrant can you derive from these grounds?
Based on Miss Grady's reaction to Bly's transfer, you can characterize Miss Grady as
It was not an uncommon practice to use medications such as morphine to treat many ailments in patients. Unfortunately, morphine is highly addictive and can cause myriad side effects including mental and physical impairments. During the Civil War, morphine was utilized by many battlefield surgeons. As a result, many Civil War veterans became addicted upon returning home after the war.
The image below is from a garment factory in 1902. The conditions in factories in the early twentieth century were not ideal; factory managers often cared more about output than worker benefits or health. Due to the advent of industrialization, workers did not have to have specialized skills or education to operate machinery or work in the factories. As a result, pay was low because workers were easily replaced. (This annotation contains an image)
Based on the initial dialogue between Bly and the factory owner, what can you infer about his attitude about his female workers?
Bly reports on the uncomfortable conditions in the industries that hire a female workforce. She includes personal anecdotes in order to appeal to the audience's emotional side. In this article Bly supports two claims: there is a disparity between the pay of women and men though they both complete difficult factory work. She also highlights the deplorable working conditions of factory workers.
Bly explains that she "tried to get [the girls at the factory] to talk" but none seemed amenable to the idea to discussing pay rates and earnings. Based on what you have read so far and the historical context of the piece, why do you think that secrecy is an element of this workplace?
Which term best characterizes the women who work in the factory?
Reread the highlighted passage. What does Bly imply is the connection between working status and social treatment? Are the working girls treated better than their non-working counterparts? Are they respected?
Click on the link below for a definition of a lobbyist. Though Bly posed as a lobbyist to reveal corrupt politicians, the job of a lobbyist is not illegal. (This annotation contains a link)
Bly comments, "This self-possessed, smiling man could not be the vampire I had been made to believe him." Why does Bly explicitly state her surprise at the man's comely exterior juxtaposed with his corrupt interior?
Bly offers to pay two thousand dollars in order for the politician to "kill the bill." Two thousand dollars is equivalent to about fifty-eight thousand dollars today.
When the politician suggest that Bly come to his office to finalize the deal, she comments that he fell "easily into the trap [she] laid for him." What does this imply about the politician and Bly?
As you read Bly's accounts, you must remember that she is not an objective journalist. She intends on proving a point when she writes. As a result, her writing may have biases within it and may not paint an accurate portrait of the events.
When the politician and Bly meet a second time, he has assured her that he "killed the bill." The readers are already aware that the bill did not go up for a vote and was "dead" when Phelps accepted the money and the deal from Bly. Which literary device does Bly use in order to portray the politician as corrupt as well as a cheat?
The phrase "the lamb is fleeced" is a euphemism for fooling an innocent.
What is the tone of the highlighted excerpt?
Lockwood is an interesting historical figure. She struggled in both her professional and personal life, endured many difficult times, and overcame obstacles. She is a prime example of how to persevere. Click on the link below for more information about Lockwood including details about the sadness she endured in her personal life. (This annotation contains a link)
Though Bly argues in her other articles that a person cannot be judged merely on his or her aesthetics, Bly describes Lockwood's appearance in great detail. Why does she include this imagery?
Lockwood concedes that her attempt to become President of the United States may not be a success, but she also notes that her attempt "educates the people to the idea." Do you believe that people are amenable to the idea of a woman president in our society?
Lockwood is resolute in her candidacy for president. She uses her wit in order to convey that women should be in the White House. View the video clip and read the article in the Washington Post about Hillary Clinton and her potential run for president. (This annotation contains a link)
After reading the article and viewing the video clip from the Colbert Report, do you believe Lockwood's race and Clinton's race are similar? Do they face similar social and political obstacles?
Prior to reading the article and arguments presented by Bly's subjects, consider your own opinion on the topic. Should women propose? What do you think about a woman who proposes?
In the beginning of Bly's article, she asks the audience, "Should women propose?" When she meets with Mr. Depew, she asks him, "don't you think that [women] should have the right to propose?" What does Bly's question to Mr. Depew imply?
It may seem ironic that the men Bly interview believe a woman should propose and the women believe that women should not. Carefully reread the reasons why the women believe a woman should not propose; they are all based upon pride and not cultural mores.
When asked if women should propose, Mr. Gillette affirms that they should, but he clarifies his point and suggests "there should be no proposing." Why do you think he makes that suggestion? What does he imply?
Bly's interview with Susan B. Anthony is a prime example of Bly's subjective style. She admires Anthony and does not attempt to veil her affection for her and her works. For more information about Susan B. Anthony's life and achievements, please click on the link below. (This annotation contains a link)
Anthony describes her father as a man who "believed in the equality of his daughters even in those days." This statement implies
In order to appreciate Anthony's perspective and her role as a suffragist, it is important to understand her background. Anthony's father was a Quaker. (More information about the faith can be found by clicking the link below.) Quakers valued education and equality. These two ideals were ingrained in Anthony from the time she was born, so it is easy to understand how her life was shaped by these beliefs. (This annotation contains a link)
The women's suffrage movement began because women chose to overcome obstacles and not to relent to them. If you click on the link below and scroll down to 1840, you will see the events that transpired that led to the development of the first women's rights convention and the suffrage movement. (This annotation contains a link)
Reread Anthony's description of what a "new woman" will be. Do you think that women have achieved this goal? Use at least three examples from contemporary culture to illustrate your point of view.
It is difficult to imagine that a race around the world would attract so much attention because we live in a world where technology allows us to know what is going on just about anywhere in the world at any given time. As you read Bly's account, note any stylistic variations from her other pieces you have read thus far. Though all of her work is motivated by proving neigh-sayers wrong, this piece may lack some of the passion that her other pieces have.
It is ironic that someone who has built a career uncovering and seeking to stop the exploitation of women and highlight the human spirit's ability to persevere is also the same author who is too "preoccupied by her own itinerary" to expose or inquire about the conditions of some of the people she encounters.
Bly's editor has doubts about her ability to travel around the world because she "would need a protector," she "would need to carry so much baggage that it would detain you in making rapid changes," and she didn't speak any other languages. All of his concerns are based on
Bly brought only one bag with her and one dress on her journey around the world. This fact fascinates people to this day. If you were to travel around the world with just one bag, what would you include?
Bly packs and is ready to journey around the world with one bag in one day. This is evidence of her
Unlike her other experiences for her other articles, Bly admits she is apprehensive and "did not feel as happy as I have at other times in life" upon embarking on this journey. By acknowledging a weakness, Bly bolsters her argument that the human spirit perseveres.
After reading Bly's personal account, the newspaper describes her as being without a "wince of fear or trepidation" and as "merry and light-hearted." What purpose does this serve?
Bly's anecdote about her bout with seasickness and how she prevails is humorous and light-hearted. This is a prime example of her fortitude and strength when facing adversity. By sheer determination, she can overcome obstacles.
The World newspaper describes Bly as its "bright little correspondent." This is evidence of which social convention?
It is ironic that Bly writes about and advocates for women's equality but that she appreciates the kindness of a man "who would have sacrificed his own comfort to insure the safety of an unprotected girl." Do you think this choice of words appropriately reflects Bly's feminist inclinations?
Bly's account of her journey around the world in seventy-two days is different from her detailed and passionate exposes. Which excerpt best describes this series of articles?
As Bly writes about her journey, it is easy to be confused as to where she is at any given time. The names of some of the places have changed since Bly's journey and if you are not familiar with global geography, you may be lost. Click on the link below for a chronological and geographical outline of her journey. (This annotation contains a link)
What is Bly saying about American women versus "English girls" in the highlighted passage? Why does Bly believe the "American girl is fearless"? Do you agree or disagree? Use evidence to support your response.
Jules Verne is the author of Around the World in Eighty days; it was this text that ignited Bly's imagination and creation of her journey. For more information about the "Father of Science Fiction" please click on the link below. (This annotation contains a link)
The newspaper articles reveal there were many opportunities for Bly's trip to go awry, yet Bly was completely unaware. In order to create suspense and increase readership, the newspaper employs which literary device?
It is evident through Bly's writing style when she is engaged in her work. Her descriptions of her journey thus far were much more journalistic, but when she is in awe of Jules Verne's study, Bly's sensory imagery captures even the tiniest detail.
The highlighted passage illustrates Bly's ________ for Jules Verne.
Based on some of Bly's observations, it seems as if she is appreciating the freedoms women are afforded in America more. Do you think that we often think "the grass is greener" and are mistaken?
Bly's account of her journey around the world has been criticized for her lack of concern and even blatant prejudice towards people who are foreign to her. When Bly accidentally insults an Italian man and is informed, that Italians "hate the English," Bly responds, "I am an American." What does she imply with her response?
Every once in awhile, Bly includes an account of a near miss with her next connection. These passages are often more suspenseful and exciting. Do you think that perhaps they are the only exciting moments for Bly? Remember: her goal is to travel around the world in less than eighty days. She is working and not enjoying herself. Do you think Bly's works are better when she is enjoying part of her work?
Based on Bly's interaction with other women while on her journey, what is the impression other nations have of American women?
Bly's journey and simultaneous romanticizing of her journey by The Globe, lead to some interesting encounters for Bly. What is fascinating is that in a world that lacked the Internet, cell phones, or even international land line calls, the news of Bly's journey is reaching destinations before Bly does. Consider how thrilling this event was for the readers.
Initially, Bly expresses some sympathy for the "Arabs" because they are beaten off by the travelers with sticks. But then Bly comments, "I thought the conduct of the Arabs justified this harsh course of treatment." What can you infer about Bly based on her statements?
The image below is a more modern image of the Suez Canal, but it clearly illustrates how small the canal is in terms of width. (This annotation contains an image)
After reading Bly's account of the juggler and the Englishman, do you think that Bly's prejudice towards Arabs and other foreigners is uncommon? Research the historical context of Bly's journey and the geography of the area. Do you think that many people exploited this region of the world? Use evidence to support your answer.
Around 1839, Aden, which is now located in modern day Yemen, was acquired as a British colony. This port served primarily as a location for ships to stop and replenish water, supplies, and coal. In order to protect its trade interests in Aden, the British formed alliances with local tribes in in which protection was exchanged for loyalty. The locals of Aden comprised of Muslims, Jews, Somalis, and Indians.
Based on the highlighted description, which religion was the "black man at his devotions"?
The highlighted passage is a prime example of Bly's blatant prejudice. This can impact her overall argument about perseverance and ultimately her struggle for equality. How can you demand equal rights when you are willing to oppress another?
In contrast to Bly's tone in other pieces in the collection, Bly's account of being fearful of the buoy reveals what about her character?
Colombo is now considered Sri Lanka. The Grand Oriental Hotel still stands today and is considered an historic landmark. Below is a current image of the hotel. (This annotation contains an image)
How does Bly's reaction to the people in Colombo compare to her reaction to the people of Aden? Why do you think Bly describes them differently? Lastly, can you infer anything about Bly based on her characterization of the two cultures?
Bly compares Colombo to Newport, Rhode Island. It is evident that the cleanliness and the familiarity of Colombo puts Bly at ease. She is happier on this leg of her journey and her writing reflects her content mood.
When Bly ventures outside of Colombo and visits the temples, she finds them to be "little of interest." Based on this account, how may a critic of Bly characterize her?
It is important to consider the amount of stress and pressure that Bly was under while on this journey. She was aware of the publicity and the shame her failure would bring to the newspaper, but the larger issue was her belief and claim that a woman could do what a man did. She didn't have to do it better, but she had to do it just as well. If she failed and did not traverse the globe in eighty days or less, it would mean she would have to stop believing that women could be equals to men.
After walking for some time to try and find the source of the waterfall, Bly becomes heated and concludes "the waterfall's secret was not worth the fatigue it would cost." In what tone does she write this?
Bly is probably her most unhappy during her time in China. She does not like the conditions in Penang and she does not care for experiences that she partakes in. You may assume that she is prejudiced against Asian people, but she also visits Japan on this trip and her account is vastly different than that of her time in China.
As Bly travels around Asia, she cannot help but be surprised by the varying cultures she is introduced to. In Singapore she is surprised that there is a lack of separation between work and home life. She also comments on the Chinese men's hairstyle. Do you think you would react very differently than Bly if you were visiting a foreign country for the first time and had no real knowledge of what to expect?
Though Bly is accompanied by escorts throughout various portions of her trip, she is not excluded from experiencing the gender bias of another culture. While in Singapore she is told she may not enter a temple because she is a woman. Can bias be a "two-way street"?
Bly recounts an anecdote about a "wild" conversation she had with the man on the deck of the ship and that she felt she may be in danger. What can you infer from this story that would not support Bly's claim that a woman could travel the globe as easily as a man?
This is the second time Bly mentions that she is a "great believer in letting unchangeable affairs go their way." Do you think she really believes in fate? Or do you think she believes that she can have a role in determining her fate?
When Bly reaches Hong Kong, she describes the mood as sad because the new place would mean the passengers would embark on the next leg of their journeys and would have to leave behind "old friends." What can you infer from this commentary?
While in Hong Kong, Bly is informed for the first time that she has someone racing against her. This news simply adds to the stress of the journey because it is not a man looking to out do her, but another woman. Consider this: If Bly is beaten by a woman, then this defeat is now personal. Bly will simply prove that women can do things men can, but she cannot.
When others try to offer Bly condolences about her potential loss to another woman traveler, she replies, "I am not racing. I promised to do the trip in seventy-five days, and I will do it." She then goes on to claim that if she had been "permitted to make the trip when I first proposed it over a year ago, I should then have done it in sixty days." What possible reason could Bly have for reacting this way? Do you think she really doesn't care about the other woman? Use textual evidence to support your answer.
It is ironic that a woman who is considered a feminist would direct women to "Go East!" to find a good man to marry. Do you think that feminism and traditional values can be congruent or are they mutually exclusive of one another?
Bly describes the Chinese merchants as cunning. What does this imply?
Bly is referring to a time in the United States where legislation was passed to prevent Chinese immigrants from becoming U.S. citizens. This was known as the Chinese Exclusion Act, and it suspended Chinese immigration for ten years and prevented the naturalization of Chinese who wanted to become American citizens. Political cartoons such as the image below were common. (This annotation contains an image)
What is ironic about the highlighted passage?
Bly is truly an American and because of her nationalism, she may have difficulty accepting the differences in other cultures.
"Coolie" is a pejorative term used to describe an unskilled laborer. In order to determine if Bly was prejudice towards the Chinese, all of the following factors must be considered except
It is very easy to read Bly's description of the jails and the treatment of the prisoners and be shocked by the practices in Japan. However, what is more surprising is the lack of reaction that Bly has to the experience. When she witnessed atrocities in the asylum or the factory system, her columns reflected her outrage. Why do you think she is so blasé about these punishments?
How does Bly's account of the Chinese leper colony compare with her account of the homeless and working poor in Mexico? Do they differ in tone? Content? Purpose? Use textual evidence to explain.
In a sense, the Oceanic and Bly have something in common: they were both predicted to be failures, and they both proved to be great successes.
How does Bly differentiate between China and Japan?
Bly is enamored with the geisha girls. She admires their appearance and demeanor. This is ironic because they are the opposite of Bly is many ways. Geisha girls are praised for their demureness; Bly is brazen and outspoken at times. The Geishas are innocently flirtatious; with the exception of a few comments about how handsome some of the men are, Bly does not engage in flirtatious behavior or any behavior that would distract her from her goals. Below is an image of Geisha girls in full makeup and dress. (This annotation contains an image)
Bly speaks very highly about the Japanese. This could serve as a ___________ for critics who claim she is a racist.
This is the final leg of Bly's journey in order to be on American soil again. The excitement and anxiety is palatable for Bly and anyone on the ship with her. It is evident that Bly has become an international sensation.
The phrase "Her grit has been more than masculine" implies all of the following except
Bly's account can be verified but do not believe that she does not embellish details in order create suspense and tell a good story. Bly knows her audience and knows how to connect with their emotional investment in her journey.
Bly describes her receptions as she traveled across the country as unlike any other. She states, "The Americans turned out to do honor to an American girl who had been the first to make a record of a flying trip around the world." This may imply all of the following except
When Bly returns home, she is greeted by many proud and curious people. Bly is also once again content and happy. This is evident in her writing style. If you are still having difficulty identifying the difference between her journalistic style and her more personal and subjective style, go back and reread some of the passages about the Suez Canal or her visits in China.
Once Bly is on American soil, it is evident to many citizens that Bly will succeed.
Bly's description of the crowds that greet her reflect her own
The motivation for the newspaper to promote the trip was simply to increase sales of the paper. Bly's motivation for taking the trip is to prove that women can persevere and prove themselves equal to a man. Consider the way Bly describes the crowds that welcome her home. How may Bly's subjectivity influence the inferences you may make from the descriptions?
VI. ON THE FIRING LINE
World War I was a shocking blow to the peace that existed in Europe for forty years prior. World War I was the result of alliances and rising tensions between nations, as well as the augmenting of standing militaries. The United States did not enter WWI until the Lusitania was sunk by a German submarine in 1915 and American civilians were killed.
Which literary device does Bly use to convey the gruesomeness of the battlefield?
Bly describes in detail the bloody bandages, the soldiers suffering from starvation, and the constant uncertainty of life in the trenches. She attempts to elicit the audience's sympathy for the Austrian troops. This is an example of
The town of Przemysl was one of the first major defeats for the Austrians in the battle against Russia.
In order to express how far-reaching the effects of war are, Bly expresses her sympathy for the "suffering of millions of the world's best men." She extrapolates the impact further and states, "I must multiply those millions by ten to count the wives, children, parents and sweethearts and relatives who are suffering untold mental agony." Which literary device does Bly use in order to emphasize the impacts of the war?
The conditions that Bly is living among are extremely dire. She includes anecdotes like the story of Henry Cross in order to convey the unconventional roles that civilians had to adopt during the war. She also includes an accurate description of the injured and dead lying among one another on the battlefield because of the ceaseless fighting.
As Bly visits the wounded at a hospital in Budapest, she remarks, "Nothing is wanting to aid and assist nature to save and heal what man is so inhumanely torturing and destroying." Based on her observation and her series of articles about World War I thus, what is Bly's claim about the war?
In many ways Bly's coverage of the war was unique because she wrote about the individuals suffering and fighting. Ironically, because she was ensconced with the troops among the battlefields and communication between Bly and America was delayed, Bly did not know the war had turned and Americans were not in support of the Austrians. As a result, Bly was criticized for being overly sympathetic to the "enemy."
The Scarlet Letter is a novel by Nathaniel Hawthorne. In the text a woman is forced to wear a red "A" on her clothing to identify herself as an adulterer.
Bly refers to the child as "a scarlett letter child." Based on Bly's description, what can you infer about the child's parents?
Rather than relying on an objective journalistic style to convey the story of the cripple woman who raised the "scarlet letter child," Bly uses a subjective and sentimental style to tell the story. What purpose does Bly seek to achieve by choosing the latter style?
The editors of the text compiled an array of Bly's articles. They all have one commonality: the subjects of the articles persevere and surmount unimaginable obstacles to achieve their goals. Even in her grittier pieces about the Blackwell's Island Asylum and her coverage of front lines with the Austrian troops in World War I, Bly attempts to show the human spirit in the face of atrocities. Through her advice column, she is able to witness, write about, and effect change in the lives of her readers. Though this story seems, unbelievable, the majority of the details are verifiable. Below is a picture of the orphanages in the early twentieth century. the conditions were not ideal and bedlam is an accurate term to describe most. (This annotation contains an image)
Bly includes an example of her own disappointment in her advice column. Why do you think the editor of this collection of Bly's work chose to include an excerpt of Bly failing to overcome an obstacle? In terms of argument, is it important to acknowledge the limitations of her claim?
Bly intimates about why she shares this story by stating, "Upon such accidents life is built." There is a tone of acceptance in her later work that is absent from her initial writings of her youth. Do you think that her personal and professional life may have impacted her ability to persevere? Or do you think that her experience may have shaped her views?