Whatever It Takes

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What would it take?

That was the question that Geoffrey Canada found himself asking. What would it take to change the lives of poor children—not one by one, through heroic interventions and occasional miracles, but in big numbers, and in a way that could be replicated nationwide? The question led him to create the Harlem Children’s Zone, a ninety-seven-block laboratory in central Harlem where he is testing new and sometimes controversial ideas about poverty in America. His conclusion: if you want poor kids to be able to compete with their middle-class peers, you need to change everything in their lives—their schools, their neighborhoods, even the child-rearing practices of their parents.

Whatever It Takes is a tour de force of reporting, an inspired portrait not only of Geoffrey Canada but of the parents and children in Harlem who are struggling to better their lives, often against great odds. Carefully researched and deeply affecting, this is a dispatch from inside the most daring and potentially transformative social experiment of our time.
This e-book includes a sample chapter of HOW CHILDREN SUCCEED.
Curriculet Details
73 Questions
74 Annotations
3 Quizzes

This free digital curriculum for high school students contains interactive videos exploring theme and central idea, textual structure and rhetorical devices, as well as annotations describing poverty in America, the challenges of urban education, and the specific techniques of nonfiction authors. Students will explore the themes of equality and responsibility and consider whether or not the American Dream still exists for all citizens of the United States. The Common Core aligned questions, answers and quizzes in this free online unit will increase student engagement in the book while supporting reading comprehension.

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The Lottery

The lottery that Paul Tough is writing about is not a typical lottery where money is the prize. In this lottery, students win a place at Promise Academy Charter School and the opportunity for a better education and a better future. This video is a trailer for a movie called "The Lottery" which depicts the high-stakes nature of these events- children's lives are at stake.  (This annotation contains a video)
Based on the previous paragraphs, who are the children he is "trying to serve"?  
Canada believes that in order to affect change on the challenges of inner city poverty, he needs to change the environment in which the children grow up. This is similar to a theory called "broken windows," which suggests that if a neighborhood or city is kept clean and orderly, the residents will be less likely to commit crimes or engage in illegal activities. This theory is now being applied to education. Read this article; how does Canada think he can use the concept of 'broken windows' to solve many of the problems in urban education? (This annotation contains a link)
Based on the context of this sentence and your understanding of the word "bureaucracy," which of the following best describes the associated connotations of the highlighted word?  
KIPP Schools target students in low-income neighborhoods to give them access to a quality education. Learn more about how KIPP gets its students to college by reading this article from The Washington Post.  (This annotation contains a link)
Paul Tough's inclusion of these stories about Stanley Druckenmiller best supports which of the following claims? 
In this paragraph, Tough uses foreshadowing in order to show the reader how the outcome of the lottery might be exciting for some and disappointing for others. Learn more about how authors use foreshadowing in order to preview events or create suspense for the reader.  (This annotation contains a video)
Read the following poem entitled "Harlem" by Langston Hughes. As you read, consider how the themes that Hughes develops in the poem are either similar to or different from the themes that Paul Tough is beginning to introduce in this text.  (This annotation contains a link)
Which of the following claims correctly articulates the connection between Langston Hughes' poem "Harlem" and the emerging theme in this text? 
Here, Paul Tough explains how Canada calls on specific people to speak at the lottery for Promise Academy. These people are meant to persuade the audience to trust the school. In order to accomplish this, Canada draws on the audience's emotional connection to Rev. Wyatt and his standing as a moral authority. Using emotion, logic, or authority are common rhetorical strategies used to convince or persuade. Learn more about these techniques by watching this video.  (This annotation contains a video)
Here, Tough uses this transition sentence in order to describe a change in the mood of the lottery's audience. Which of the following adjectives correctly describe this transition? 
Paul Tough most likely includes this anecdote about Canada after the lottery in order to  
As you read nonfiction texts, it is extremely important to compare and contrast the author's claims with those of other writers. Read the following editorial article in the Chicago Tribune and identify the author's thesis. Is it similar to or different from Canada's view on solving the problem of education in America? (This annotation contains a link)

Unequal Childhoods

Fill in the blank: In this highlighted sentence, Tough uses ______________ in order to ___________. 
Geoffrey Canada accurately identifies that family income has a drastic impact on a student's educational success. This graph illustrates just how much a family's income determines whether or not a student graduates from high school. How would you interpret this data?  (This annotation contains an image)
A person who disagrees with the idea that poverty is created by America's economic system would most likely believe 
In this section of the text, Tough uses a common technique adopted by nonfiction writers: he blends together the narrative story with historical information and context about the problem that is central to this text. This often changes the pace of the text - you might notice that the reading goes more quickly when Tough focuses on the narrative of Canada's story, but when you are reading this background information, it takes longer to process the material. That is completely normal and often intentional on the part of the author. Learn more about how authors structure the pacing of their texts by watching this video.  (This annotation contains a video)
Based on your understanding of the primary thesis or claim of the Moynihan report, would Geoffrey Canada agree or disagree with the findings of that report? Why?  
One of the primary reasons behind the extreme rise in violent crime in the 1980s was the 'crack epidemic.' This link illustrates, through photography, the degree to which drug use and abuse took over many American cities and ravaged their populations.  (This annotation contains a link)
Which of the following are factors that William Julius Wilson considers part of the systemic problem of African American poverty? 
The title of this chapter, "Unequal Childhoods," is an allusion to a text of the same name written by sociologist Annette Lareau. The primary thesis of Dr. Lareau's work is that class, more than race, determines the way in which a child is raised and the potential outcomes of their life. Watch this interview to learn more about how she conducted her studies and what she learned in the process. Do you agree with her conclusions? (This annotation contains a video)
Though he does not agree with their findings, Paul Tough includes summaries of research such as The Bell Curve and "The Moynihan Report" in order to  
This image illustrates the massive impact that race has on standardized test scores (specifically, the SAT). Notice that Black and White students with the same income levels still are separated by large gaps in average score.  (This annotation contains an image)
Which of the following inferences is best supported by the highlighted sentence? 
The Harlem Children's Zone is only one of Geoffrey Canada's many ideas about how to solve the nation's education problem. Watch this amazing TED Talk, given by Canada himself, to learn more about why he believes this problem is extremely urgent. If you don't have time to watch the whole video -- just watch the first five minutes to get a glimpse of Canada's ideas. (This annotation contains a video)
Here, Tough describes research collected about the number of words that a child accumulates in his or her vocabulary during childhood. In two sentences, explain how a child's vocabulary might be a significant indicator of his or her future life prospects.  
This link includes a list of the items that researchers in the HOME study surveyed during their home visits and interviews with families. Look at the statements or questions and think about your own childhood: how would you or your parents have answered these questions? What do you think those answers would have signified about your upbringing? (This annotation contains a link)
Based on the context of this sentence, the word "subjective" most nearly means 
One of the primary ideas at the center of this debate about the impact of parenting and environment on a child's life prospects involves the debate about nature versus nurture. Watch this video to learn about the differences between the impact of environment and the impact of genetics. (This annotation contains a video)
Which of the following would NOT be considered an example of the "concerted cultivation" form of parenting?  
The structure of a text is the way in which an author organizes the story and the other important information. In nonfiction texts, authors often alternate between a narrative and important context or background information. Think about the structure of this text - how does Tough organize the information in order to present Geoffrey Canada's personal story alongside important historical and social context about poverty, race, and education? (This annotation contains a video)
Which of the following statements best articulates a comparison of the structures of the first two chapters of this text? 

Baby College

Geoffrey Canada could not provide his own children a stable childhood, but then went on to attempt to ensure stable childhoods for thousands of children in Harlem. The outcome of his life is unexpected based on the events of his early life. When this occurs in literature, it is called irony. Learn more about irony by watching this video!  (This annotation contains a video)
In Manhattan, wealthy parents often think that the key to an Ivy-League education starts in their child's admission to a premier kindergarten. This New York Times article illustrates how parents often hire tutors so that their three-year-olds can perform well on a kindergarten admissions test. Do you think these parents are crazy or crafty? (This annotation contains a link)
Tough prefaces a chapter on HCZ's "Baby College" by describing Canada's own path as a father. What is the impact of this technique on the reader? 
Cheryl's story is the norm for many low-income, under-educated minority women in America. This graphic illustrates that only twelve percent of Black households below the poverty line have both parents present. In your opinion, what factors contribute this problem?  (This annotation contains an image)
Which of the following adjectives would best be used to describe Stridiron Clark? 
In this anecdote about Stridirion, Tough begins to develop an emerging central idea in this text: the cyclical nature of poverty. Watch this video and then consider how the author gives multiple examples of why poverty is so challenging to escape.  (This annotation contains a video)
Fill in the blank: In this highlighted sentence, Tough uses ____________ in order to communicate __________________.  
Darryl's statements about refusing to spank his son place him in the minority in Black families where corporal punishment is more accepted and practiced. As noted in this article, children who are spanked before the age of 2 are more likely to experience behavioral problems later on in school. Canada's focus of the Baby College lessons around discipline stem directly from this type of research. Should children be spanked for misbehaving? (This annotation contains a link)
Fill in the blank: Tough uses ______________ in order to draw a contrast between the backgrounds of Damita and Shauntel.  
Though Paul Tough writes this book in a factual, journalistic manner, he still instills his writing with a lyrical tone and vivid imagery when he is describing his characters. Learn how authors, even those writing nonfiction texts, use imagery in their writing.  (This annotation contains a video)
Based on the information that Tough presents about Victor, how would you describe his personality or character? Is he trustworthy? Why or why not?  
After reading Leroy's story about his father's absence, watch this amazing spoken word poem about fathers by Marshall Davis Jones. Pay close attention to the the poem, as the next question will ask you to analyze common themes between the text and the poem.  (This annotation contains a video)
Which of the following statements correctly articulates the commonalities between Marshall Davis Jones' poem and the anecdotal stories that Tough recounts from Baby College?  
The discord between Victor and Carol around Victors 'Beat Ass Early' technique of parenting illustrates a cultural divide between what is and is not acceptable. Often in these situations, sociologists and philosophers adapt a theory called 'cultural relativism,' which argues that even if we don't think something is right, we should accept that it may be considered acceptable in a different cultural context. Do you agree? Are morals relative to a certain culture or is there a clear right and wrong no matter the situation? 
Carol draws a clear delineation between the words "abuse" and "discipline." How are the connotations of the two words different? 
Tough's use of the word "fireworks" provides an example of figurative language. He does not mean that there are actually fireworks, but instead, that the interactions between Carol and Victor were explosive in nature. Learn more about the difference between literal and figurative language by watching this video!  (This annotation contains a video)
Which of the following ideas in these highlighted sentences is also discussed in previous chapters? 
This website provides the statistics to support the results of Harlem Children Zone's programs. Based on Canada's vision for Treasure Lee and these statistics, is HCZ successful? (This annotation contains a link)
Based on the context of the highlighted sentence, the word "contrite" most nearly means 
Tough uses imagery and description to create a jubilant and excited mood in this section of the text. To learn more about how authors create mood, and how mood is different from tone, watch this video.  (This annotation contains a video)
Because the government does not support HCZ's Baby College program, where does the organization most likely obtain the money to run it? 
Though Wanda Osorio suggested that participants in Baby College learn from certain typically white, middle-class parenting techniques, there are other aspects of that parenting that should not be replicated. Specifically, the concept of helicopter parenting, which has increased in the early 2000s, is terrifying to most parenting experts. Read the first eight paragraphs of this article and consider how helicopter parenting can damage a child's independence and self-esteem.  (This annotation contains a link)


In this first paragraph, Tough illustrates the endemic problem of African American poverty in America. In 1953, Martin Luther King said these words: "Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand signed the Emancipation Proclamation...But one hundred years later, we must face the tragic fact that the Negro is still not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languishing in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land."Based an analysis of these statistics do Black Americans still live on a "lonely island of poverty"?  
In the 1960s, Union Avenue was one of the most dangerous neighborhoods in America.  (This annotation contains an image)
Which of the following claims best represents Loury's solution for urban minority poverty? 
Canada's use of the phrase "our parents" refers to 
When Canada uses the example of white children reading Harry Pottery, he does not mention that there are few young adult books (Harry Potter included), that contain characters of color. Read the following article and then think to yourself: when was the last time you read a book with a main character who was not white?  (This annotation contains a link)
Which one of the noted men in this paragraph would NOT agree with the following thesis statement: African American poverty in the United States is not a result of unequal social structures, but of inadequate personal motivation.  
The name of Canada's group, the Young Disciples, is an allusion to a famous gang, the Gangster Disciples, a gang that rose to fame on the South Side of Chicago during Canada's childhood.  
The highlighted sentence illustrates an example of which of the following? 
In these paragraphs, Tough juxtaposes Canada's hectic life in the Bronx with the quaint and pastoral life in Wyandanch. When an author uses juxtaposition, they place two unlike ideas side by side. This image is an example of a juxtaposition of young and old.  (This annotation contains an image)
Based on Paul Tough's description of the teenage Canada, which of the following adjective sets best captures the young man's personality? 
Read the following editorial written by a Bowdoin freshman in 2012. Pay close attention to the differences in perspective between Canada's experience and Mr. Mejia-Cruz.  (This annotation contains a link)
How does Mr. Mejia-Cruz's editorial differ from Canada's opinion of Bowdoin? 
The Black Power movement of the late 60s and early 70s frightened whites immensely. Malcolm X's vitriolic language was often angry and aggressive. Watch this video to learn more about the Black Power movement.  (This annotation contains a video)
Was the admissions office of Bowdoin College successful in attempting to diversify their school by attracting underprivileged black students? Why or why not? Use evidence from the text in your answer.  
Earlier in this text, you watched a video about how authors structure their texts. Here, Tough continually jumps through time, from Canada's childhood to his college to the education of his son. Why does Tough use this structure? How does it influence the reader's impression of the text? 
Fill in the blank: In this paragraph, Canada uses ____________________ in order to convey _____________________.  
Mini Quiz 1 

Battle Mode

The children's skepticism about making it to college is not unfounded. In New York City, though 60% of students graduated from high school, only 22% of them were considered 'college-ready.' This number is even lower for students of color.  (This annotation contains an image)
Which of the following most likely contributed to KIPP's "impressive standardized test scores"? 
Tough's use of the phrase "blow it up" is an example of an exaggeration or hyperbole. Learn more about this literary device by watching this video.  (This annotation contains a video)
What is the structural function of Tough's heavy use of statistics in this section of the text?  
Here, Canada describes the pressure on Promise Academy as a ticking clock. Based on the video that you watch previously about the difference between figurative and literal language, does Canada mean this description to be figurative or literal? 
Geoffrey Canada's outrage about absences is warranted. Students who are often absent are much more likely to drop out of school. Additionally, students who miss school are more likely to fall behind in reading scores, as illustrated by this infographic.  (This annotation contains an image)
Canada's statement of "How much do we need to do" supports which of the following inferences about his attitudes toward teacher's work-loads? 
Amazing teachers like Mr. U can single-handedly transform the lives of their students. Watch the following video to see one of these amazing teachers in action. Who is the most amazing teacher you have had? What made them so amazing? (This annotation contains a video)
Mr. U's reference to the "kids downtown" most likely is referring to 
This anecdote about the children's struggles with vocabulary provides an emotionally touching image to support which previously presented fact? 
Because these standardized tests are so essential to funding, Geoffrey Canada needs to ensure that his students perform. However, in the rush of preparation, Canada never stops to question whether or not the tests are valid. The parents in this video challenged these tests because they do not believe they are worthwhile. Watch this video and take a position: are standardized tests worth the effort? (This annotation contains a video)
Canada's repetition of the concept of war is best explained as which of the following examples of figurative language? 
The word 'paradigm' is extremely important to the meaning of this paragraph. Good readers know that when they come upon a word they don't know, they should always make a guess based on the context and then look the word up! If you don't know the word 'paradigm' you should follow those two steps right now.  
Based on the stories that Tough is recounting here, make a prediction. Will Promise Academy's students succeed on the upcoming test? Why or why not? 
Based on the textual evidence in this paragraph, which of the following adjectives best characterizes Terri Grey? 
Tough uses the transition word 'meanwhile' in order to communicate the contrast between Promise's mediocre results and the general success of New York City as a whole. Good readers pay attention the transition words that authors use - they usually give clues about what is coming next.  

Bad Apples

In these highlighted sentences, Tough uses multiple instances of figurative language. In the space below, list one of those examples and explain the type of figurative language and its impact on the text.  
A tension is beginning to arise between Druckenmiller and HCZ as a result of Promise Academy's poor performance. This tension, a failure to live up to promises, will continue to dominate the text. Learn more about the impact of tension on a text by watching this video!  (This annotation contains a video)
Read the following webpage to learn important details about charter schools. Read carefully, as the next question will ask you to synthesize that material.  (This annotation contains a link)
How are charter schools different from conventional public schools? 
Just as authors use juxtaposition in order to put two different ideas or images side-by-side, the administrators of these KIPP schools do the same thing by showing visitors the contrast between their schools and the 'wild' public schools next door. Why do authors (and school administrators) use juxtaposition? Review this term if you need a refresher!  
Which statement explains Canada's hesitancy to turn over the direction of his schools to David Levin and KIPP? 
Grey's attempts to save art and music education in her school are supported by research. Read the following article and identify two pieces of evidence that support the claim that art and music positively impact student performance.  (This annotation contains a link)
Why does Tough include Grey's remark that some of her students at her college-prep school are not "going to make it" to college?  
In many ways, Geoffrey Canada identifies with the children in his programs. Why does Canada feel that these students are similar to himself and his brothers? 
Which of these answers articulates Canada's opinions of Grey's tenure as principal of Promise?  
Though many laud Geoffrey Canada for his work in Harlem, there are others who criticize his aggressive and volatile approach to education. The following article describes some of those critiques. Skim the main ideas and find at least one criticism of Canada or the Harlem Children's Zone.  (This annotation contains a link)

Last Chance

Based on the start of this chapter, what does Principal Pinder believe is the biggest problem preventing Promise Academy from keeping its promises to students and parents? 
In literature, authors develop characters as central parts of the text. In nonfiction texts, the characters play different roles - they don't necessarily drive the plot, but they are developed in certain ways so that the reader can understand their personalities and tendencies. Consider Tough's description of Finn and Pinder and then watch this video. How are these characters developing?  (This annotation contains a video)
Which of the following adjectives best describes Finn's tone in this highlighted paragraph? 
Here, Tough uses italics in order to emphasize a specific phrase that Finn is highlighting. Writers often use italics, capitalization, or distinct fonts in order to emphasize certain aspects of the texts. 
In this paragraph, Tough documents Finn's transition from formal language to colloquial phrasing. Why does Finn make this change? 
Tutoring has been demonstrated to have a direct impact on improving student test scores and closing the achievement gap between poor and wealthy students. Read the first two paragraphs of the attached article. What was the impact of the tutoring program implemented by Match Education? (This annotation contains a link)
Over the course of the this chapter, Tough documents the changes that have occurred under the new administration. How does the atmosphere at Promise Academy change from one leadership to another?  
A rhetorical question is a common speaking technique that most people use all the time. Any time you ask a question to your friends such as "Why is this assignment so dumb?" you are asking a rhetorical question. This means that you do not want anyone to answer the question, but are simply asking it to comment on the topic at hand. Watch this video to see all of the examples of rhetorical questions in Geico commercials.  (This annotation contains a video)

The Conveyor Belt

The title of this chapter, "The Conveyor Belt," is meant to be figurative and symbolic. In your own words, predict how the concept of a conveyor belt might be symbolic or representative in the story of Promise Academy? 
A quandary is a difficult situation in which a person is forced to make a tough choice.  
The impact of the "accident of birth," refers to 
The thinking behind Heckman's proposal is similar to that of the ruling of Brown vs. Board of Education. Unclear about what Brown vs. Board was about? Watch this video, as it is an extremely important aspect of American history.  (This annotation contains a video)
Which of the following best describes the problem that Canada is attempting to solve by "plugging holes"? 
Here, the reader sees the repeated idea of the 'conveyor belt.' When an author repeats or returns to an idea multiple times, this is called a motif. Watch this video to learn about the function of this literary device.  (This annotation contains a video)
Which of these answers accurately describes the connotation of the term 'conveyor-belt kids'?  
It is not uncommon that low-income parents have little to no access to new research and reports on parenting - they often do not have Internet access to reach these resources. In fact, 28% of families in the Bronx do not have access to a computer, compared to only 6% of families in Manhattan.  
Take a step back from the details and think about the big picture: how does Paul Tough structure this text?  
Geoffrey Canada wants his parents to expose their children to museums and other cultural experiences. Why does Canada care so much about art? Read this article to find out.  (This annotation contains a link)
Recall a central idea from earlier in the text: Why do the teachers in the Harlem Gems' program focus so heavily on vocabulary development, specifically words like 'canoe' that are uncommon in their cultural environment?  
It is very interesting to see evidence that supports the idea that learning a foreign language can completely change a child's academic and intellectual ability. Did you learn a language when you were young? If so, do you think it helped you develop as a learner? 
Why do Torgensen and Canada (and many other educators and policy makers) believe that reading and vocabulary are the most important foundational skills? 
Remember, 'noncognitive abilities' are the skills that students develop outside of their academic learning. These are skills such as organization, socio-emotional interaction, and communication. These are skills that allow students to be successful in the workplace.  
Mini Quiz 2 

Escape Velocity

Based on Tough's description of McKesey in this highlighted sentence, what can the reader conclude about Tough's opinion of Canada? 
Why does a student's first or second grade reading level matter? The following graph illustrates that students who are reading at or above grade level are much more likely to graduate from high school.  (This annotation contains an image)
Based on the context of this sentence, the opposite of remediation classes would be  
The phrase "it would mean his job" means that with poor scores the next year, McKesey would lose his job as principal. Do you think principals should be fired if their students perform poorly on a standardized test? Why or why not? 
Here is a question asking you about a question! These highlighted example problems all ask students to identify which of the following important aspects of a text?  
Because of his accomplishments, Geoffrey Canada is often invited to give commencement addresses at colleges. Here he is giving the graduation speech at Dartmouth College.  (This annotation contains an image)
Why does Tough include this story about Sparzak's personal story about Promise Academy? What impact does it have on the reader? 
Think back to what you read earlier in the annotations. How does attendance impact a student's performance in school? 
The phrase "the pieces of the puzzle were beginning to fit together" is best described by which of the following analyses?  
Geoffrey Canada's dreams of changing the trajectories of his student's lives toward the middle class is based on the idea that becoming middle class will solve many of these families' problems. Read this article and determine whether or not the author of this article would agree or disagree with Canada's goals.  (This annotation contains a link)


Canada's highlighted statement to parents is an example of a euphemism - when someone attempts to make something negative sound positive. Click on this link to watch a video about euphemisms and hear multiple examples of the term.  (This annotation contains a link)
Which of the following adjectives correctly describes how these students feel about Canada's 'downsizing' of Promise Academy? 
This famous quotation is often interpreted to mean that people can only achieve great things when they take small, yet constant steps toward their goal.  
The phrase "He looked down at his hands" signifies that Geoffrey Canada feels  
Though nonfiction texts do not usually follow a typical literary plot structure, they are still primarily centered around a conflict. Here, the conflict comes to a head as Canada and his staff suffer their most daunting setback yet. Is this an example of internal or external conflict? Learn more about these terms by watching this video and then make a decision.  (This annotation contains a video)
Fill in the blank: Xavier is ________ about the downsizing of Promise Academy because ____________. 
Based on the information that Tough presents about Xavier's family, are they the norm or the exception in Harlem? Why? 
Though Tough's book was published in 2009, in many ways it forshadows Canada's continued struggles to make the HCZ live up to its promises. In fact, in 2014, Canada stepped down as director of HCZ, faced by the continually daunting odds of poverty.  (This annotation contains a link)
Which of the following rhetorical appeals does Tough utilize here in order to heighten the impact of the school's closing on the reader? 
Though saddening, the realization about the improvement of the test scores is an example of situational irony: an unexpected outcome. Make sure to review the concept of irony if you need to remind yourself of the definition of the term. 
Mitch Kurz describes the reaction of the school's board by comparing their decisions to those of  
"Pomp and Circumstance" is symbolically associated with graduations everywhere. Music often conjures emotions - what feelings do you feel when you hear this melody? (This annotation contains a video)
Which of the following pieces of textual evidence supports an inference than this paragraph illustrates Canada's humility? 

What Would It Take?

At the start of this chapter, Tough transitions back to another central plot line in this text: Cheryl's story. When an author weaves together multiple story lines, this is called using a parallel plot technique. Watch this video to learn how and why authors use this structure.  (This annotation contains a video)
Victor's struggles with reading put an individual face on which of the large central ideas of this text?  
The Harlem Children's Zone did not experience booming success. However, it did make progress in the fight against urban poverty. As a result, President Obama is attempting to replicate the HCZ in other cities around the country. Skim this article to find out what makes this specific site special. (This annotation contains a link)
Geoffrey Canada believes that unless he can change the environment around the child, he cannot change the outcome of the child's life. Based on what you have read in this text, do you agree or disagree? Why? 
Listen to Obama speak more about the Harlem Children's Zone by watching this speech.  (This annotation contains a video)
Mini Quiz 3