The word felicitous means an appropriate action. Based on the highlighted sentence, what viewpoint is commonly held regarding the death sentence by electrocution versus hanging?
Charles Lindbergh was a famous aviator. His toddler son, Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Jr. was kidnapped and murdered in March 1932; the case received national attention and was dubbed "The Crime of the Century." Bruno Richard Hauptmann was arrested, charged, and eventually executed for the crime. He maintained his innocence until the end. (This annotation contains an image)
The word "conjugal" means to have intimate relations, usually with a spouse. The passage goes on to say that many "Death House babies" resulted from these visits. It is ironic that babies, who represent new life, are conceived in a place notorious for death.
Lesra Martin's words in the highlighted text serve to pose universal questions such as: How do humans endure social injustices? Does it take more courage to suffer or to end one's suffering through death? What qualities are forged through suffering?
What literary device is used to help convey a tone of gratitude in the highlighted text?
It is important to note that Carter has claimed he is innocent. One way that he refuses to accept his situation is by refusing to follow the prison's rules. Based on the text, would you choose justice, injustice, power, control, freedom, or another word to describe the central idea that is emerging?
Carter is described as having a "predatory instinct for survival." Based on this, which animal would be least likely to symbolize Carter?
Bob Dylan is an American singer and song writer, who was especially influential during the 1960's. His lyrics often incorporate social, political, and philosophical influences. He wrote the song "Hurricane" in the 1970's about Carter in order to show his support as Carter engaged in an unsuccessful battle to overturn his conviction. (This annotation contains an image)
What is the significance of Carter mentioning that the electric chairs' "bolts were still in the ground, and the imprint of the chair was visible" in the highlighted text?
The following map will help you to visualize where Paterson is in relation to big cities like New York City and Philadelphia. (This annotation contains an image)
Allen Ginsberg (pictured below) was an American poet and leader of the Beat Generation during the 1950's. He was adamantly against materialism, militarism, and sexual repression. In other words, he stood against many of the cornerstones that defined Mayor Graves. (This annotation contains an image)
The author claims that blacks in Paterson prefer an exciting, raucous, and racy night life. Which piece of textual evidence best supports this claim?
The quote by Emma Lazarus appears on the Statue of Liberty. From the little we have learned so far about the premise of this novel, would this statement ring true for Carter? (This annotation contains an image)
The author claims that Mayor Graves' hatred for bars stems from Paterson's disorderly history. Give two supporting details from Paterson's past that would fuel Graves's dislike.
The denotation of the word "fiefdom" is the property or domain of a feudal lord, or any organization owned or controlled by one person. The connotation associated with this word is that the Mayor sees himself as the lord, and the police as his serfs or slaves. The problem is that no person should exert that much control over a department committed to unbiasedly solving crimes and protecting all citizens.
Which is not a reason for why Paterson’s black community becomes increasingly fed up
resulting in a riot?
The highlighted text explains that no one would dispute the fact that the crime was "sadistic." In other words, whoever committed the murders took pleasure in inflicting pain. Based on this description, readers can infer that the manner in which the victims died will be excessive and horrific.
What is so brutal about the shooting of Hazel Tanis?
While the crimes are horrible, it would probably be an exaggeration to elevate them to "the most heinous crimes" and "the most dastardly crimes in the city's history." By doing so, Graves's creates even more tension instead of trying to diffuse it between blacks and whites.
Based on Carter's physical description and actions in paragraph one of this chapter, what overall tone is created?
From the turn of the 20th century and for decades after, watching boxing matches was a popular form of entertainment for Americans. During the 60's and 70's Muhammad Ali (pictured below) dominated heavy-weight boxing bringing global recognition to the sport. However, by the late 1970's boxing's popularity began to decline. (This annotation contains an image)
Click on the link below to watch the short one minute video interview ("A Sharecropper's Political Courage") with author Alice Walker as she explains how her father, a sharecropper, found the courage to participate in elections in the segregated South. As you watch, consider what words you would use to describe life for black sharecroppers in the segregated South. (This annotation contains a link)
Why does the author include the anecdote about Larry Doby?
The picture below is of Malcolm X, who was a human rights activist. His supporters admired his courageousness in indicting white Americans for their crimes against blacks. However, those who opposed Malcolm X often viewed him as a radical who preached racism and violence. He was assassinated in 1965. (This annotation contains an image)
Watch the short clip from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech, "I Have a Dream." Consider the pros and cons of both King and Malcolm X's approach to achieving equality for blacks. Which is more effective in your opinion? (This annotation contains a video)
What does the word Jungle refer to in the headline, "A Match Made in the Jungle"?
Watch the short video clip below where Howard Brick, a professor at the University of Michigan, discusses the turbulent power struggle going on in society during this time period in our country. This clip will help you to develop a better understanding of Malcolm X's philosophy, which influenced leaders like Stokey Carmichale and Bobby Seale. (This annotation contains a video)
Why is Tee self-conscious?
The map below shows you the South American country of Argentina where Carter's next fight is scheduled to take place. (This annotation contains an image)
Summarize why Carter pays no attention to the rumblings of a "shaking" in retaliation for the Holloway murder.
It is no longer considered acceptable to use the term Negro; many Civil Rights' leaders, especially Malcolm X, objected to the use of this word because of the word's association with slavery, segregation, and discrimination of blacks. The use of this word in this text confirms for readers that the storyline is not taking place in present day.
Based on the highlighted text, assess whether or not the following claim is justified: Artis is more angry than scared in this situation. Be sure to support your answer with details from the text.
The dictionary defines lynching as a mob putting someone to death without a trial, most often by hanging. Historically, black men were most often the victims of lynchings by white mobs. Here, Carter compares his situation to a lynching to convey the fear he feels at being surrounded by angry white spectators. He also points out the police officers, or law, will turn their heads, a common practice by law officials during lynchings.
What emotion drives Carter's outburst?
Carter seems to almost have a premonition not to return home to Paterson. However, he does not act on this feeling. If you were Carter, would you have remained in Argentina and left your friends and family in exchange for safety, or would you have taken your chances with the law because you believed in your innocence?
How does Artis hope to avoid the draft?
Carter's actions reveal his positive feelings of concern for Artis. Unfortunately, Carter is unable to see the threat that is about to descend on him until he is surrounded by police.
What is particularly unfair about the police treatment of Carter?
When does Carter expect to be freed?
The author claims that if Carter wanted to kill someone, he would use his hands instead of guns. Based on what you have learned throughout this biography about Carter's character, is this an accurate claim? Why or why not?
The personification of justice dates back to ancient civilizations. It is ironic that the Lady Justice is blindfolded because in this situation Carter has been grossly mistreated, and it is unlikely that he will receive a fair trial. (This annotation contains an image)
The Passover Sedar is a Jewish ritual meal that signifies the beginning of Passover. During Passover, Jews celebrate the Israelites liberation from Egypt. At the meal, the youngest member of the family asks, "Why is this night different from all other nights?" These are the same words that Brown asks the Judge and would be familiar to Judge Larner.
Why is jury selection a dismal process for Carter?
The picture below shows each of the victims of the Lafayette Grill Shooting as well as where each victim was located in the bar at the time of the shooting. (This annotation contains an image)
Which statement most accurately summarizes what
is revealed during Brown's examination of Marins?
The use of the word "seethed" insinuates that Carter is simmering or boiling with anger (like the picture of the boiling water below). So far, he is managing to keep his temper in check. However, it has to be infuriating to sit in a court room and watch the sole remaining victim, who previously identified Carter as not being one of the shooters, change his testimony on the stand. (This annotation contains an image)
The picture below is of Alfred Bello. As you continue to read, determine whether or not Bello is a reliable witness. (This annotation contains an image)
Who is the state's "mystery witness"?
Carter breaks down all the holes in Bello's testimony for readers in this paragraph. Which begs the question, who has convinced Bello to say these things? What does Bello get out of lying?
Which inconsistency is shared by both Marins and Bello's testimonies?
Which type of government best reflects the ideas proposed in the highlighted text and the quote (in the previous annotation) from Brave New World?
The following quote is from Aldous Huxley’s science fiction novel, "Brave New World" (cover pictured below), which explores developments in psychological manipulation and classical conditioning. “The greater a man's talents, the greater his power to lead astray. It is better that one should suffer than that many should be corrupted. Consider the matter dispassionately, Mr. Foster, and you will see that no offence is so heinous as unorthodoxy of behavior. Murder kills only the individual-and, after all, what is an individual?” Expect a question comparing this quote to Carter’s situation. (This annotation contains an image)
Harper Lee's novel "To Kill a Mockingbird" explores racism in the South. In the clip below, the lawyer Atticus Finch provides his closing argument in defending an innocent black man accused of raping a white woman. As you watch, look for similarities between both trials and Finch's and Brown's closing arguments. (This annotation contains a video)
What similarity is shared by both Brown's closing argument in this text and Atticus Finch's closing argument in the video clip (from the previous annotation)?
The tension builds and crescendos as Hull appeals to the jurors' sense of justice through the use of personification in the highlighted text.
The following picture depicts two of the victims where they fell in the Lafayette Grill murders. (This annotation contains an image)
What is the significance of the West Indian man being removed from the jury's deliberation?
Perry Mason was a court room drama that aired on TV from 1957-1966. Tee is hoping for a "Perry Mason ending" because she wants a happy ending for Carter. (This annotation contains an image)
What is meant by the term "red hot summers"?
The author directly states that "opposition to authority" is a defining characteristic of Rubin Carter. Here, this claim serves as a controlling idea for the rest of the chapter. As you continue to read, look for supporting details for this claim.
Carter grows up hearing a story of how the Ku Klux Klan threatened his father's family when they were growing up. What does this story teach Carter?
Carter's father justifies his hard work by quoting from Ecclesiastes 9:10 from the Old Testament of the Bible.
Watch the short video on point of view and cultural perspective. Be prepared to encounter a question on these topics later in Chapter Five. (This annotation contains a video)
From Rubin's perspective, who started Ruben's lifelong battle with the police?
At the beginning of this chapter, the author stops referring to Rubin Carter by his last name and instead begins using primarily his first name. What is the purpose of this switch?
The picture below is of paratroopers or soldiers parachuting out of airplanes during battles and missions. (This annotation contains an image)
Why does Carter join the armed forces?
The use of first person point of view in this paragraph allows readers to hear Rubin's own voice. This is a contrast to the majority of the biography which is written in third person point of view.
Why is cultural perspective significant in this biography?
Below is a map of Germany. Augsburg is denoted by a star and the pink label. (This annotation contains an image)
How would you characterize Carter during his time in Augsburg?
Parables are short allegorical (have a hidden meaning that can be interpreted) accounts meant to teach a truth, moral, or religious principle.
What is the hidden message or allegory of the parable of the sleeping farmer?
The use of italics in the highlighted passage is used to denote Carter's thoughts. You can infer that Carter has respect for these fighters based on the word choice used.
What tone is conveyed through the word choice in the highlighted text?
The highlighted reference or allusion is to biblical story of David versus Goliath. Goliath, a Philistine giant defeated by the young David is used to illustrate that Carter, the underdog like David, is able to defeat the boxing giant or Goliath, Nelson Glenn. Below is Caravaggio's "David & Goliath." (This annotation contains an image)
Provide an objective summary of what makes Carter's new membership and residence as part of the 502nd a "nirvana"?
Watch the short clip of Cassius Clay (who later changed his name to Muhammad Ali) boxing at Madison Square Garden in order to visualize what the author is referring to here. As you watch, what do you notice about the fans, the commentator, the fighters, and the setting in general? (This annotation contains a video)
What does Carter's boxing nickname represent?
The map of New Jersey below, will allow you to see where Trenton is in relation to Newark. (This annotation contains an image)
Below is a picture of Emile Griffith, who Carter will fight in his journey to win the middleweight title. (This annotation contains an image)
Which of Griffith's emotions does Carter target when he leaks stories of Griffith being cowardly?
Watch the real-life footage of the fight between Carter and Griffith. As you watch this primary source, expect to encounter a question comparing and contrasting the video and the text in the quiz at the end of Chapter Six. (This annotation contains a video)
Locate Johannesburg on the map of South Africa below to help you visualize where in the world Carter is at this time. (This annotation contains an image)
Based on how it used in the highlighted sentence, which would be an antonym for the word "palpable"?
The picture below is of South African Stephen Biko. What do you think Biko meant by the quote below? (This annotation contains an image)
What reason is given as a possibility for why Carter began to be less effective in the ring?
At the beginning of this chapter, we learned that Carter has trouble with authority. Throughout his childhood, he frequently rebels or bucks authority. He learns to rely on himself and his fists. By the end of this chapter, his manager has swindled Carter's money. This lesson once again fortifies Carter's distrust in others.
Which is the best example of why Trenton State Prison is called "a fortress frozen in time"?
Below is a picture of a cell in the Trenton State Prison. It is included to help you visualize the size of the cells. (This annotation contains an image)
Summarize Carter's plan of action once he arrives at the prison. Do you think Carter's argument is justified?
Watch the short video on solitary confinement below. The video allows you to develop a better understanding of this form of punishment or torture. As you watch, look for statistics on race. Which race is subjected to solitary confinement the most? (This annotation contains a video)
What medical problem is discovered that Carter is suffering from?
Carter finds a way to avoid wearing the mandated prison uniform. Which word best characterizes Carter based on this example from the text?
Carter desires not only his freedom, but to also have his name cleared and be pronounced innocent. This reveals that he truly believes that he is innocent and wrongfully convicted.
What does Carter dedicate his time to in prison?
Carter's legal fees are costly and an unintended consequence is that his wife and child are forced to go on "public assistance" or welfare. This would be particularly difficult for Carter because he has always prided himself in being able to take care of his family.
Which of the following most accurately states a positive effect that came out of the riot at the prison?
The purpose of the highlighted text is to show that Carter is a complex man. The word "juxtaposed" means to look closely at opposites, side by side. Here, it used to contrast Carter's negative and positive attributes. He is often a portrait of contrasts, but these imperfections make him human.
Which of the following themes best reflects the social changes characterizing this time period?
The picture below is of a typewriter from the 1960's. This is the machine that was used to type manuscripts prior to computers. (This annotation contains an image)
What is Carter afraid of losing?
The highlighted text refers to the Soviet Union's belief that dissidents, or those who disagree with the government, should undergo psychiatric rehabilitation because political dissent is a form of mental illness. In other words, the Soviet government used incarceration in mental hospitals as a means of controlling those who disagreed with the government. Here, the comparison is made to show that the prison system is exerting its control over Carter in a similar fashion.
Quiz on Chapters One Through Six
What literary device is used in the highlighted text?
In this instance, Hogan relentlessly pursues his purpose. He does not give up and this wins Carter's admiration.
In other words, Solomon is hoping to draw attention to Carter's case because he believes it defines the times in which they are living.
What ultimately changes Solomon's goal from just making a film to advocating for Carter's innocence?
Both Bello and Bradley recant their statements. What do these actions mean?
The timeline below chronicles the Watergate Scandal. (This annotation contains an image)
Below is an example of George Lois' work depicting Nixon. (This annotation contains an image)
Below is the ad that was run in the New York Times. (This annotation contains an image)
Why is the ad more effective visually than what is included about the ad in the biography?
How is Muhammad Ali and Carter similar?
Below you will see a picture of Carter (left) with Muhammad Ali (right). (This annotation contains an image)
The reference or allusion to "blowin in the wind" is a well-known Bob Dylan song.
What is one difference between Carter and Dylan?
Watch the video below of Bob Dylan's song, "Hurricane." (This annotation contains a video)
Below you will find the picture that you just read about of Carter and Dylan. (This annotation contains an image)
What constitutes true power according to Carter?
DeSimone believes that his actions are justifiable because he believes he lives his life according to the Bible. However, it is clear to see that DeSimone is okay with lying, cheating, discriminating, and ruining Carter's life which goes completely against Jesus' teachings in the Bible.
Is the claim that DiSimon does not play by the rules a fair assessment? Using examples from the text, explain why or why not.
According to the text, what three things drive a split between Carter's black and white supporters?
The photo below is of Bob Dylan performing the night of Carter's benefit concert at Madison Square Gardens. (This annotation contains an image)
What tone is conveyed by Carter's statement in the highlighted text?
Revenge of Passaic County
It is interesting that Humphreys is not more sympathetic to Carter's case because of his strong support of the Civil Rights Movement. One has to wonder if it is his ambition to reach his own personal goal has clouded his judgement. As you read on, look for evidence of whether this is the case or not.
What shocking news does Carter receive from his wife?
Winnie Mandela is a controversial South African activist who worked to end apartheid, a caste system which provided economic, social, and political benefits to whites while disadvantaging blacks in South Africa. She was married to Nelson Mandela, who spent decades in prison for trying to end apartheid.
According to Kelley, what did Carter do to her?
It appears that Carter's mistrust of others is wrecking havoc in his life. On one hand, it is justifiable that Carter would be suspicious of others considering what he has gone through, it is also important to note that many of these people are responsible for creating the national attention for Carter's case.
Choose the image that would best represent Carter's situation based on the following quote: “There were no more rallies or financial contributions, and
the fundraising money evaporated thanks to poor financial controls.”
The use of the word grandstanding means that Steel was putting on a show for reporters.
Bello surprisingly renounces his recantation, but he still appears as the key witness in the case. What does Carter believe this reveals about America?
Bello continuously has holes in his stories and excuses. His credibility seems to be shot. Why do you think he would be allowed to testify again?
What similarity is shared by the Kavanaugh-DeFranco case and the Carter and Artis case?
This is where the selection of the jury becomes important. It has already been pointed out that the majority of the jury is comprised of working class Americans. Therefore, the outcome is that the jurors do not empathize with Carter because he is not seen as one of them.
Below is a copy of Rubin Carter's autobiography which is reference here. (This annotation contains an image)
How would you characterize Judge Leopizzi's actions? Is there evidence that he is making courtroom decisions that would be considered unfair? Explain.
The use of the word "macabre" means shocking or ghastly. It is often used in conjunction with death. As you continue to read, you discover that the use of this word applies because the prosecutors are suggesting that the murder weapons have been burried inside a dead man's casket! One can infer that the prosecutors will want to exhume or dig up the remains.
Which of the following words best describes Carter?
The purpose of Steel's use of first-person personal pronouns like "we" is to make the jury believe that they are on the same team as the defense. Notice the use of rhetorical questions that serve to plant the idea that the state (authority) is making the jurors believe certain things. However, Steel lets the jury know that they do not need to be "brainwashed" and believe things that "the state wants you to."
What does Beldock insinuate?
It is ironic that Artis falls in love and marries a white woman because so much of the prosecution's case rested on making the jury believe that Artis and Carter hate white people.
Search for the Miraculous
Carter and his wife each receive a subpoena. In other words, they are required to appear before a court to give testimony concerning what happened to the $10,000. This is just another example of the "hurricane" that Carter and his family have been caught up in since the Lafayette murders.
What drastic action does Carter take after appearing in court?
This is an allusion or reference to the Ray Charles song "Hit the Road Jack." Below is a picture of the famous singer. (This annotation contains an image)
The use of the word "masked" means that Carter is hiding behind "anger and sarcasm." However, if one can see past those outward reactions, one would see a man struggling internally. The tone of Carter's second incarceration so far is much more weary, dismal, and even hopeless.
Which description does not accurately portray an inmate who is "institutionalized"?
What does the author mean by "Freedom had become an abstraction"?
The Auschwitz concentration camp was the largest established by the Nazis and has come to be an infamous symbol of the genocide carried out by the Third Reich. The camp consisted of three camps in Poland. All the camps utilized forced labor, and mass killings also were carried out. (This annotation contains an image)
Watch the short video on internal changes in the novel Siddhartha. Although you may not have read this book, you can still recognize that Siddhartha and Carter are both experiencing internal changes at this time. As you continue to read, look for external or physical evidence that Carter is changing on the inside. (This annotation contains a video)
What message from Siddhartha does Carter see applying to his own life?
Carter is coming to the conclusion that he is like metal that is being formed, or molded, and hardened by a forge (like in the picture below). It is the obstacles in his life that are responsible for changing Carter. The ideas that he is encountering as he reads are changing his perception. (This annotation contains an image)
Ouspensky claims that "every man lives in a prison" in the highlighted text. Although Carter literally lives in prison, do you believe that Carter is imprisoned in other areas of his life? Explain why or why not using examples from the biography.
Carter is like a pendulum that swings from one side to another. In the beginning of the book, he falls more under Ibsen's category of "radical opinions." However, we now see that he is swinging to the other side and believes that "consensus opinions" or those held by a group, like society, are more dangerous.
What happens to Carter's father?
Beldock believes Harrelson told the prosecutors information that should have been shared with the defense. This would give the prosecution an unfair advantage, and it is Beldock's belief that this is grounds for a mistrial.
The Inner Circle of Humanity
As you continue to read, pay attention to the chapter titles. This title seems to have a positive connotation because of the use of the word "humanity." As readers, it makes us wonder who is in the inner circle. This gives us a purpose for reading as we move forward.
Counterculture refers to values and ideas that go against mainstream society. An example of a group who embrace counterculture would be hippies during the 1960s like those pictured below. (This annotation contains an image)
According to the text, why does Lisa run away from home?
Lisa gives all of her money to a poor woman in a bathroom in India. This shows that she is extremely compassionate, and she does not hold tightly to material possessions. It could also be seen though as irresponsibility or poor planning because she has used up her financial resources while traveling in a foreign country. Do you see her actions as positive or negative?
Which trait would not accurately describe the commune after reading about the batik store they set up?
It is clear through the descriptions provided that the commune values secrecy above all else. Why do you think that is? How might this lifestyle fit into the definition of counterculture?
Which of the following words best describes Lisa?
The use of this word is incorporated here to reflect the time period in which Shaw was living when this offensive and derogatory racial slur was unfortunately more commonly used.
The highlighted text makes an allusion or reference to the biblical story where Jesus raises Lazarus from the dead.
In regards to Lesra's schooling, it is discovered that Lesra is ______________.
The use of the highlighted simile serves to illustrate the magnitude with which Carter's story affects Lisa.
The use of the word "tabernacling" means to temporarily dwell with or commune with such religious and philosophical icons as "Buddha, Socrates, Jesus, and Krishnamurti." In other words. Carter studies and mediates on the works of these distinguished teachers.
What is the symbolism behind the commune's gift of a velour jogging suit to Carter?
Lesra makes an important observation concerning fear while riding in the taxi to the prison with the women: when one is afraid, it is beneficial to draw strength from others.
Which description most accurately reflects how Carter initially views the Canadians?
Cunningham's description of Carter brings to mind a different type of hurricane. Carter is initially described as a physical hurricane, but it is now his story that permeates the Canadians thoughts and conversations.
The title of this chapter is "Paradise Found." Explain the significance of this title using at least two examples from the text.
This is a similar sentiment to the observation Lesra makes earlier about fear. Both men, initially alone, are now exploring the power of a collective group working together to support one another.
Which belief do both Carter and Lisa share concerning human nature?
Thich Nhat Hanh said, "The most precious gift we can offer anyone is our attention. When mindfulness embraces those we love, they will bloom like flowers." Here, we can see that the attention Lisa pays to Carter is helping him to "bloom."
Using the highlighted passage, explain what is causing the tension between Carter and Lisa.
According to Carter, what animal personifies the prison?
Carter has become desensitized to the violence around him, not only in the Vroom building, but also within the prison system in general.
Which piece of textual evidence best reveals the irony in Carter's punishment following the head count incident?
The following diagram depicts the effects of Buerger's disease on extremities like one's hands or feet. (This annotation contains an image)
Once again, Carter faces a setback in his fight for freedom. Consider how you would feel if you were in Carter's shoes, especially to lose by one vote.
The highlighted text conveys the sense that Carter is a lost cause. Imagine how this would make you feel if you went from being an icon for social injustice, with celebrities backing your cause, to abandoned by virtually everyone. It also allows us to understand the appeal that Lisa and the commune have for Carter.
By 1982, how many years has Carter been embroiled in legal battles?
Sinclair's statement in the highlighted text supports the claim that the commune views itself as superior. To call the state of New Jersey an ant which a small handful of people can step on insinuates that the commune is bloated with confidence or "ugly smugness." They may do well to remember that "pride cometh before a fall."
The chart allows the commune members to track the data from the witnesses. The benefit to this is that they notice a trend. As Bello is found to be more unreliable, some of the other witnesses increase their aggression towards Carter by embellishing details in their testimonies.
What object created by the Canadian commune boosts Carter's flagging spirits?
It says that Carter "became obsessed with this lower rope" like the ones in the picture below, and that "he saw it as a metaphor for society's misperceptions of truth." Is this an accurate assessment? If so, how has society misperceived Carter? (This annotation contains an image)
Lisa shares that other men in the commune have undergone a vasectomy. Which would not be a reason why Carter is adamantly against have this procedure done to him?
The picture below is of the best type of "straight flush" in poker known as the royal flush. This consists of the ace, king, queen, jack , and ten of a suit. The use of this simile illustrates that Cassidy is holding back his hand and not revealing what he has yet. However, it gives the impression that he has something that could definitely help the case. (This annotation contains an image)
Based on the highlighted text, you can infer that ______________________________.
The picture below is of the campus of The University of Toronto in Canada. It is a huge achievement that Lesra is accepted, demonstrating the importance of hard work, a strong support network, and an education in overcoming poverty. (This annotation contains an image)
What "good news" does Carter receive according to the text?
Lisa refers to William Ernest Henley's poem "Invictus." The entire line from Henley's poem is depicted below. (This annotation contains an image)
What surprise awaits Carter?
Imagery is important in Carter and Lisa's relationship. They both rely on communicating elaborate descriptions that include as many of the five senses as possible. Why do you believe they incorporate imagery into their everyday conversations?
Why was the letter to the New Jersey attorney general about laundry duty included earlier in the book?
Quiz Two Covering Chapters Seven Through Twelve
One of the most important documents in medieval England, the Magna Carta, was a between the feudal barons and King John in 1215. The purpose of the document was to stop King John from abusing his power as king. Below is a picture of this historical document. (This annotation contains an image)
What influential musician does Sarokin meet in Europe?
It is important to note that Judge Sarokin becomes an advocate for the underdog. This observation leads readers to believe that if anyone is going to approve a habeas corpus for Carter's case, it would be Sarokin.
Judge Sarokin demonstrates that he has a sharp wit and is not afraid to do the right thing. However, how far is he willing to go to uphold the law?
What action is most prized by Judge Sarokin?
This is one of the rare times when Carter has been able to set the pace or make a decision about his fate. He says that a Motion for Summary Judgement fits his style of fighting-- quick and deliberate.
According to the text, who or what is Carter's enemy?
Bergen-Belsen was a concentration camp in Northern Germany. On the map below, the name of the camp is written in yellow font just under the compass rose. Although it is hard to read the font on this map, all of the names are major Nazi camps. (This annotation contains an image)
Which central idea is supported by the Canadians and Carter's lawyers working together?
The introduction sets a strong tone that clearly defines Carter and Artis as the long-suffering victims while depicting the prosecution as the antagonist. What is the risk of using more antagonistic language versus a more traditional style?
Beldock says that when the "race issue" is used, it pollutes the process. Which image below could be used to best represent his claim?
The use of the word bigot refers to someone who treats others in an intolerant manner based on race, religion, sexuality, etc. However, even if the murdered bartender was a known bigot, Goceljak still has not shown how this relates to Carter and Artis. In other words, his argument is farfetched.
It is ironic that the prosecutor claims that "actions speak louder than words." If you apply this statement to the state of New Jersey and the judicial system's treatment of Carter, what conclusion can you draw?
In the picture below, you can see the amaryllis bulb as well as the blossoms. Why do you think that Carter wishes to have a flower in his cell at this time? What might the flower symbolize for him? (This annotation contains an image)
Who does Sarokin hire as his law clerk?
Sarokin and Rosen must create airtight reasoning backed up by prior court rulings if Sarokin is to overturn Carter's guilty verdict. Sarokin and Rosen must be prepared to stand their ground by knowing Carter's case and rulings on similar issues like the back of their hands because such a ruling will cause a huge uproar of disapproval.
Which physical symptom below is a manifestation of Carter's stress?
Summarize without personal opinion how the state cheated in order to "win" and convict Rubin Carter?
It is important to note that Sarokin is sending an important message about "the need to protect individuals against the unlimited power of the state" as well as the damaging role of racism in the U.S. It begs the question, are people in this country treated equally today regardless of race, ethnicity, gender, religion, or sexuality?
Identify which piece of textual evidence is an example of irony.
The prison gets one last shot in at Carter in an effort to make him submit. What happens?
The use of the metaphor in the highlighted text illustrates how pleased Carter is that he blends in with the crowd. He has discarded his old image, like his goatee and hairstyle, and he feels his introspection and willingness to learn are now his defining characteristics.
Who or what would you expect the highlighted sentence to be describing?
The use of the phrase "aging bullets" reminds readers that the prosecution is trying to use the same tired arguments. And why wouldn't they? It is shameful to say that these arguments worked for decades to the determent of Carter and Artis.
Watch this scene from the film version entitled "The Hurricane." As you watch look for similarities and differences between the text and film. Expect to encounter a question after viewing. (This annotation contains a video)
How is the courtroom scene where Rubin is pronounced free to leave prison similar in both the film and the text?
What happens physically to Rubin on his first night of freedom?
The highlighted text illustrates that nothing is straight-forward and easy for Carter. His relationship with Lisa is extremely complicated. The use of "cold calculation" reveals that ultimately Carter is thinking about how he can best survive. Some would argue that Carter is just using the commune while others might argue that Carter is enjoying the commune but being realistic about his options.
Whose statement is surprisingly included in Carter's counterattack?
The picture below is of Central Park in New York City. It is important to note that Carter and Canadians believe it is safer to live among the "wealthy" for Carter. What does this say about those who live in poverty? (This annotation contains an image)
What tone is conveyed in the highlighted text?
It is interesting to note that the author says Artis is "forgotten." If only he had been "forgotten" at the time of the time of the crime, maybe then he would not have been falsely imprisoned for decades.
What type of rhetorical device is used in the highlighted text?
Based on the highlighted text, how does the use of rhetoric (the technique of using language effectively) advance either the point of view or purpose of the piece? (Hint: Study Marmo's use of rhetoric. Why does the author include these statements? How does this inclusion help you to develop an understanding of the storyline?)
Why does the author include the back-and-forth battles between the prosecution and Carter and his legal team?
Those who are questioned by the police reveal a deep sense of loyalty to Carter and try to protect him.
Is the evidence that the prosecution brings up again, as a way of getting their brief extended in length, fallacious (logically unsound or deceptive) or factual?
The defense's brief reveals that they are wily and resourceful. They slyly find a loophole through the use of a different font, bold type, and footnotes to submit a much longer brief. This new approach is a direct result of the Canadians working on the brief. Since they are not trained as lawyers, they are able to look at the situation from a new "nontraditional" viewpoint.
Carter embraces the Canadians' method of celebrating by going out for coffee. By doing so, he is able to avoid attention and keep a low profile. This is a marked departure from the man depicted in the first half of the biography.
What condition was supposedly agreed upon to ensure that the prosecution would no longer pursue court action against Carter?
Beldock hits the nail on the head in identifying a key central idea or theme in Carter's story. He points out that after twenty-two years of struggling, "good triumphs over evil."
The term "pro bono" indicates that the lawyers contributed their time and talents for free.
In the highlighted text, the author uses a communication technique used in rhetoric called pathos. This is an appeal to the audience's emotions. Here, the descriptive word choice helps convince readers that Carter's hard-nosed image and the historical context will always be enough to render him "guilty." Two other persuasion techniques that can be used in rhetoric are ethos, which convinces based on the credibility of the author, and logos, which uses logic to persuade.
What is the author's purpose in writing this biography?
What type of figurative language is used in the highlighted text?
The word "heinous" was used in the beginning of book by Mayor Graves to describe the Lafayette murders. We now see the irony of that word, because although the murders were tragic, the twenty-two years that Carter suffered a "living death" as a result of racism are perhaps more heinous.
What characteristic is conveyed by the custom official's actions and words?
What does the highlighted comparison serve to illustrate?
The term "sub rosa" means of secrecy. Here it refers to the commune's insulated and self-segregated lifestyle away from society.
What happens after several months of Carter living with the commune in Canada?
Carter indicates that he feels relief to leave the commune. It is ironic that he feels "claustrophobic" within the commune because he is now a free man. This is an emotion that one would have expected Carter to experience while living in a small, tight prison cell, not in the free world.
Which statement is not reflective of Carter's life while living in the commune?
Carter's struggles with alcohol are not new. However, he spent years sober in prison, so why do you think that he turns to alcohol privately when away from the commune at this time in his life?
What is the cause of the infection that results in the loss of Carter's right eye?
Below are several pictures that will rotate of Rubin receiving his honorary belt. (This annotation contains an image)
What claim does McClure make?
Notice that the author maintains an objective tone by detailing the positives and negatives of all characters.
The author claims that competition characterizes Carter and Martin's relationship with each other. Identify the antonym for "competition" below.
The map of the midwest allows you to locate where Naperville is. (This annotation contains an image)
The following map of Canada illustrates where Toronto and Halifax are located. It is approximately 1,100 miles between the two cities. (This annotation contains an image)
What severs the fragile tie between Carter and Martin?
Carter is literally suffering from blindness here. However, we can also read deeper into the situation to see that Carter has lost his way (the equivalent to his vision or purpose) in life due to alcohol. In order to achieve clarity, he will need to overcome this hurdle.
What figurative language is used to convey the urgency Carter feels to drink from the bottle?
An allegory as a literary device is an extended metaphor. Here, Moses illustrates that he has spent a lifetime overcoming characteristics like cruelty, conceit, and greed. Like Moses, we have just read of Carter's life-long journey to overcome his base desires and achieve peace.
Why does the author remind the reader of the earlier scene that really began Carter's journey at the end of the biography?
During the epilogue, the author, James S.Hirsch, switches to first person point-of-view and gives readers a glimpse into his personal interactions with Carter and those close to Carter as he researched Carter's story.
What tone is conveyed by Theodora's statement?
Which theme is most clearly represented in Tee's letter?
In a way, November 7th is like a birthday for Carter. This was the day of his "rebirth" as a free man.
Quiz on Chapters Thirteen Through Epilogue