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The beginning of each chapter in this three-part science fiction novel will include an excerpt from another text. Most of these excerpts come from writings by the Princess Irulan. Much can be learned about the chapter by its introduction. Consider these carefully as you read.
Which of the following establishes the relationship between Jessica and the old woman?
The Bene Gesserit are women who possess special powers because of both their heritage and training throughout their youth. Bene Gesserit are often called witches.
What is the meaning of the word nuances?
This book has begun in medias res or "in the middle of things." Watch the video below to learn more about this technique. Don't be alarmed that you may be confused as you begin this story. There are many unexplained elements. As you continue to read, think about how Frank Herbert, the author, does reveal important information about the setting, characters and events you have been thrown into the middle of. (This annotation contains a video)
What assumption can you make about the Harkonnens?
Is there a difference between people and humans? What can you tell about the setting here that a mother would send her son in to endure such a dangerous test? How is Herbert revealing aspects of the setting to you through action, dialogue and characters?
What do the italicized sections indicate?
Paul is being set up as our protagonist (the main character in the novel). This important conversation about Jessica's ancestry will come up again in this section of the text. Keep in mind all that you are learning about Paul as you read.
What seems to be the values of the people in this novel? Provide a brief summary in which you discuss what seems important to this race.
Dune is set in the future and takes place on multiple fictional planets. Watch the trailer below to see the 1984 adaptation of the book. This may help you better picture some of the scenes and characters. (This annotation contains a video)
Which of the following characterizes the relationship between Piter and the Baron?
Mentats are humans who can perform highly complex thinking tasks and computations. Mentats are more powerful than typical humans because they have machine-like capabilities which they have honed through years of training.
What seems to be the role of women in this society? Consider the first chapter, the nature of the Bene Gesserit, and this repeated mention of the prediction that Jessica would bear a female.
The use of the third-person omniscient narrator allows for the reader to get inside the thoughts of multiple characters as well as to understand what might be happening in one place while something else happens in another. How might this novel have been different if only told from one character's point of view (1st person)?
What literary device do Piter and the Baron's plans serve as?
Watch the following video about character development. How do these characters help to move the plot along? (This annotation contains a video)
Jessica refers to ______________ in the highlighted paragraph.
Jessica was supposed to have a female child (something which it seems she might be able to control), but instead had a male child out of loyalty to the Duke. Though the relationship between Jessica and Duke Leto will be called into question, they are clearly very close. The Bene Gesserit are most concerned with bloodlines and had intended to use Jessica's female child for breeding the Kwisatz Haderach (a male child with the powers of the Bene Gesserit as well as the masculine powers they do not possess).
What does the Reverend Mother mean when she says that loneliness should be one of the tests?
Paul mentions that he has to explain many of the poem's terms to the girl in his dream. This is an indication that she is from Arrakis, a planet where water is precious and extremely hard to come by. There are no oceans, no seagulls and no seaweed. Beach and surf would be foreign concepts to someone from Arrakis.
Which of the following best characterizes Paul?
Very important information about characters you have not even met yet is being given out here in this excerpt. As you read, consider how Herbert builds suspense while often telling you outright that something is about to happen.
The highlighted line contains ________.
Notice from Hawat's language that he has a deep mistrust of the Bene Gesserit. He uses the term "witch" to describe them and even mentioned that Jessica might need to be put in check. Additionally, Paul hesitates to tell Hawat anything more about the Reverend Mother and says that the "inhibitions went deep." We, the readers, know that Hawat will be led to believe that Jessica is betraying her Duke. Does he already know that?
Explain the Reverend Mother's vision of leadership revealed in the highlighted sentence. What does Paul have yet to learn?
The weapons listed here are a range of old style swords and arrows (rapiers pictured below) and futuristic shield belts which, when turned on, send a high-tech force field out around its wearer. These weapons reveal much about the nature of this world, set as it is in the future, but embroiled in ways of the past. (This annotation contains an image)
What can you infer about the relationship between Paul and Halleck Gurney?
Watch the following filmed version of this scene. Notice the differences as Paul and Halleck Gurney practice. (This annotation contains a video)
How do the filmed clip and the written version of this scene compare? Be sure to consider what each version succeeds or fails to communicate to its viewer/reader.
Which of the following statements contributes to the characterization of Dr. Yueh?
Wanna is Dr. Yueh's wife. He reveals here his motive for aligning himself with the Baron. Though he has respect and concern for Paul and his family (The Atreides), his desire to save his wife is stronger.
Cupidity means strong desire or greed (especially for wealth). Dr. Yueh directs Paul to a section on water in order to plant in him the desire for water as wealth. This may be because they are heading to a location where water is extremely scarce.
Dr. Yueh had intended for Paul to read a section he had marked about water, but Paul turns to a section that Wanna had marked and begins reading. What is the significance of the words Paul reads from the text?
How does the Duke view his son Paul?
Many of the relationships between houses, CHOAM, the Emperor, the Guild, etc, remain slightly unclear. However, at this point, we know that the Atreides (the Duke's House) is moving to take over administration of the planet Arrakis, void of water and rich in the spice melange (a type of life-extending drug). As you read, keep looking for clues as to the relationships and strategic moves between the powers that be in this novel.
The Fremen are desert dwelling people who have become accustomed to the way of life on Arrakis. They are skilled warriors and have even developed a special suit that harvests and repurposes all of the moisture that leaks out of the body. Because water is so scarce, Fremen wear these Stillsuits all of the time.
What is the meaning of esprit in the highlighted sentence?
A monopoly is when one organization or group is in control of a market. For example, if there was only one cable provider, we would all have to subscribe to them for our cable. Without competition, a group can set the rules, prices, etc. any way they like because they know their customers have no choice but to use the service.
Paul keeps mentioning this "terrible purpose." What do you think he means? Why does Frank Herbert include this in the story?
Duke Leto reveals that even he does not know Jessica's ancestry. This will become an important topic later. Though Duke Leto is a powerful man, it would appear that there are others much more powerful than he.
How did Duke Leto come to be with Jessica?
The Atreides trust that Hawat's men have secured the living quarters of the new house. The Atreides are highly guarded, which creates a sense of great suspense and impending peril.
Jessica and the Duke behave _________ on the outside while they feel __________ on the inside.
Jessica and the Duke behave _________ on the outside while they feel __________ on the inside.
Jessica's thoughts reveal her doubts about her training and its purpose. Shadout Mapes provides an interesting conflict for Jessica. Think about their interaction and what you learn about Jessica as you read.
Why does Jessica behave the way she does towards Mapes?
Herbert uses this interior monologue to reveal many things about Jessica. Here, we learn that though she acts like she knows all about the crysknife, she doesn't know as much as she lets on.
What does Mapes's reaction to the bull's head reveal?
This is the second time that Dr. Yueh's wrinkled coat has been mentioned. Why is this significant? Given what you know about him, what might this symbolize?
Watch the following video on symbolism. As you continue reading, think about the objects, events and people you encounter and what they might symbolize. (This annotation contains a video)
Herbert paints Dr. Yueh as a complex character. Rather than leave him the evil villain, Herbert reveals that Yueh is conflicted about the choices he's made, but that his loyalty ultimately belongs with his wife, Wanna.
The fact that Jessica is comforted by the sight of her sleeping son when we, the readers, know that this is the very thing that is alarming about the situation is an example of ________________.
Because Jessica is Bene Gesserit, as was his wife, Yueh knows that she can detect things normal people cannot. He also knows that she will know if he is not telling the truth. This may have been part of why he was chosen as the traitor in the first place. Many of the interactions between characters go on underneath the surface of speech.
The hostile soil that is mentioned here could be seen as a metaphor for ___________.
The Battle of Corrin was the last battle between humans and thinking machines that took place 10,000 years before this novel takes place. In 2004, Brian Herbert and Kevin Anderson wrote this "prequel" to add to the Dune franchise. (This annotation contains an image)
What is the reason that Yueh is close to confessing his secret role?
These desert-dwelling creatures only existed on Arrakis before the discovery of the spice melange. The spice now exists as an economic staple and a resource over which whole races feud.
Which of the following could replace the work catatonic?
Notice how the Fremen use water, and references to it, to express value. Here, Mapes is talking about the fact that Paul has inadvertently saved her life. She understands that she is now in debt to him: a water burden.
Based on your knowledge of Jessica and the novel in general, how might the information in the highlighted sentence "sustain her in her time of trial"?
Although this palace would likely be lavish in many regards, the existence of a green-room is particularly extravagant on a planet where people frequently die from lack of water. As you read, consider why this place is such a sanctuary, both literally and figuratively.
What mood does the setting of this "pleasure room" create?
Remember that Hawat will come to suspect Jessica of being the traitor (or perhaps he already does).
Based on context clues, what is a cairn?
Paul's role in the novel is that of the hero. Though he is in the beginning stages of fulfilling that role, readers would be wise to note the comparisons between Paul and other popular heroes (think Odysseus from Greek Literature, superheros from pop culture, Frodo from Lord of the Rings- there are too many to name). As you continue reading, what about Paul's story reminds you of the stories of other literary heroes?
Some have compared the spice melange in this fictional world to our own dependence and obsession with oil. Though this novel came out in the 1960's (before OPEC which is an international body governing oil prices and production) CHOAM is often compared to OPEC. What other commodities can be compared to the role of spice in this novel?
How does Herbert use the thoughts of the Duke to express a sense of doom? What do you predict based on Duke Leto's doubts that he would ever see his home planet again?
What do the Fremen represent to the Atreides?
As the Harkonnen depart Arrakis and the Atreides take over, there has been an appointed of a Judge of the Change to oversee the delicate handover. You will meet this character soon. The change of power poses a certain amount of challenge for the incoming government who have to question the motives of everyone.
Which of the following quotes best describes the relationship between Thufir Hawat and Duke Leto?
Muad'Dib is the name given to Paul by those who believe in the prophecy that he is the Kwisatz Haderach.
How does Paul de-escalate his father's frustration?
A sietch is a community where the Fremen live (sort of like a town). Sietches are underground cave tunnels. This causes some comparisons in the book between Fremen and rabbits, who live in warrens that are much like sietches.
Explain the Duke's plan regarding the unlicensed frigates. What is the plan's objective?
Below is one rendition of a harvester factory. These are used to harvest the spice melange and so are important assets to the ruling party. (This annotation contains an image)
Which of the following best reflects the role of the shield on Arrakis?
Sardaukar are imperial soldiers who have been trained to be ferocious in battle and to possess many powers of the mind. Pictured below as they appeared in the David Lynch film from 1984, this Sardaukar also has a lasgun (which you will see later in the book). (This annotation contains an image)
Why does Paul disagree with the plan that his father and Halleck have concocted?
This is an important attribute of Leto's. Because he is a fair leader who is most concerned with the prosperity of the people, he is respected very much by the Fremen. Though Leto is not our protagonist or the hero of this tale, consider the author's goal in setting Leto up as this type of leader and father figure to Paul (the actual protagonist).
What developing theme in the book is being constructed in this conversation between Leto, Stilgar and Idaho about allegiances?
The Atreides mistakenly think that the reference to Liet is a reference to a "god." Unlike the statement "God knows" (which means no one has any idea), Stilgar's statement "Liet knows" means that their leader is the only one that knows.
What is the tone of the highlighted statement?
Watch the following video on theme. Now that you have a better understanding of the setting and characters in the novel, begin to look for clues as to which important big ideas and themes are being developed. (This annotation contains a video)
Why might the Fremen enjoy a trip off planet?
Kanly was the enactment of a formal feud or vendetta. These feuds would be passed down through generations and would not end until the last son of a house was dead. Kanly is a Turkish word that means sworn enemy.
The highlighted statement is an example of _____________.
Review the following information on the archetypes in the hero's journey. As you read, think about the roles each character plays in the overall structure of this hero's journey. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZxs_jGN7Pg (This annotation contains a video)
According to the Stages of the Hero's Journey that you just reviewed in the Archetypes document, which stage is of the journey is Paul currently in?
This is an important piece of knowledge that the Duke is passing down to Paul. The distinction between a renegade house and a guerilla house (guerillas are underground resistance fighters) is important because the Duke believes that Paul will not inherit his throne as it is, but only after disaster.
Who is it that Kynes has been ordered to betray?
Remember what you learned about characterization. There are many ways that you learn about a character. Here, another character's description of his own impression of Kynes reveals that Kynes is an exacting force.
How does Kynes characterize Arrakis in the highlighted statement?
What is the legend that Kynes refers to here?
The Shield Wall is a rocky and mountainous geographic feature in the northern part of Arrakis. It was said to protect a small part of the planet from its powerful storms. (This annotation contains an image)
Propoganda is information presented in such a way as to sway opinion or emotion. Many leaders have used propaganda to garner support. Kynes is likely referring to posters or signs that have been put out in the village.
This reference to Eden is an example of ___________.
Which of the following could replace the word timbre in the highlighted sentence?
The worms are depicted as giant creatures that move through the sand, erupting out with an open mouth for a head. Though these worms at first seem like nothing but a threat, the relationship between Arrakis, the worms, and the people who live there will become more complex. (This annotation contains an image)
Seismographs, which can chart seismic activity, are what we use to detect signs of an earthquake. This detail gives a reader a good idea of how powerful and large these creatures are.
What is the tone of the highlighted section?
The men, who work to harvest the spice, work in an undoubtedly dangerous position. Worms seem inevitable, and so these men have a system which allows for their calculation of exactly how much time they will have to harvest the spice and then get away safely before the worm comes. What do you imagine the life of these workers is like? What does this tell you about the relationship between the people and the government here?
How would you compare these two leaders, Kynes and Duke Leto? What do you think accounts for their differences.
Here is one of many visual translations of an orinthopter. (This annotation contains an image)
What can you infer about Kynes?
Notice the language with which this "Dune man"' speaks. Not all of the Arakeens are Fremen. What does it say about the relationships between different groups of people on Dune that the worker was angry over the suspected presence of a Fremen?
Think about the ways that faith and religion play into this book so far. What is the dominant role of religion in the novel so far?
Which of the following words best describes the tone of the highlighted paragraph?
The run down of the list of guests paints the Atreides in sharp contrast to the Arakeens. Notice how each character seems to have an agenda. Keep this in mind as you continue reading this scene.
Which of the following themes is being developed in the interchange between Jessica and Kynes?
Jessica presents the legend or belief of the Lisan al Gaib on Arrakis as a "planted" idea. Clearly, Kynes and the others do not see this story as a fabricated idea. Which presentation of the story is true? What is the author trying to question here?
How does Herbert reveal the mood of the dinner?
Watch the first few minutes of the video below to learn about minor and major keys. This is the second time that it has been mentioned what key the music Halleck has been playing in. How does this knowledge of dark and light chords change or enhance the scene? (This annotation contains a video)
What is the role of dialogue in this interchange?
This practice of using a dead man's water (meaning the water that is in the body) seems atrocious to the Atreides (and likely to you). But what does it show about the Fremen?
The highlighted statement is an example of ____________________.
Suspense is one of the important aspects of any science fiction novel. Questions about the future of the House, the planet, the interactions between characters are all floating around in the background. Underscoring these larger questions is the suspense of the moment. Though not much is actually happening, the use of a third-person omniscient narrator makes the reader aware of so many of the suspenseful nuances of the scene.
Who is Halleck's statement directed towards?
Herbert uses more indirect ways of showing the reader each character's loyalties at this tense dinner party. Although he does not come out and say it, a reader could infer from his reaction that the stillsuit manufacturer is aligned with the old regime: the Harkonnens.
This is an important quote that is connected to the theme of inheritance. Many things are controlled by the past and by ancestors (for each of the groups of people represented in this novel). The setting for the novel, the future, paired with the almost medieval ways of governing and human interaction make for a slightly ironic tone. Consider why Frank Herbert might have set his fictional world up this way.
What can you infer based upon your knowledge of Dr. Yueh?
Jessica has discovered she was suspected of being the spy, the traitor. Ironically, Duncan Idaho does not know it is the very Dr. Yueh who is giving him something to drink and pressuring Jessica to let him take care of the situation. It is important to note the power of Jessica's Bene Gesserit training in this section.
Which of the following reveals the way Jessica is viewed during this argument?
Notice here the unflagging faith in the order that is imposed upon their society. Codes of honor, represented loyalty, and training all intersect in these communities to drive decisions.
Which of the following is included in the highlighted section?
Herbert's use of the inner dialogue here reveals much about these two characters. Each is weighing his/her options carefully and recognizes his/her own fallibility.
What has Jessica done to Thufir Hawat?
Again, the opening excerpt reveals much about the chapter you are about to read. You do not yet know Jamis, but consider the song's intent - its meaning. Why would it open a chapter in which we first see the Duke reading a mysterious note?
Leto has just said to himself that he would rush to tell Jessica the truth and now we know he is surely coming under serious threat. What is the purpose of including that piece of information (about what Leto was about to do) in this section of the story? What effect does it have on you as a reader?
This interesting weapon, a poison-gas-filled tooth, is the only way that a weapon could be smuggled into the Harkonnen's quarters. Yueh, though a traitor, is revealed as a more complex character than what might first have appeared. He is driven by revenge and the pain of his lost wife.
Which of the following could replace the word marshaled in the highlighted sentence?
Though Piter is mentat and is supposed to have very strong powers of the mind, he does not detect that the Baron is tricking him. He has no intention of really giving power to Piter. Piter is overcome by his lust for power.
Which of the following best characterizes Piter?
This is a fairly classic move on the part of the writer to provide the heroes with just enough opportunity to escape. Can you think of any stories you are familiar with in which the same thing happens?
Which stories can you think of that include the same slightly humorous opportunity for the good guys to escape the bad guys with just the right failures and advantages? Describe at least one scene from another text or movie that includes this trope.
Paul's relationship with his mother is complicated. This struggle between accepting his destiny and rejecting it is amplified by his mother's desire to protect Paul and to usher him into his destiny. Keep this tension in mind as you continue reading.
What is the meaning of the word purchase as it is used in the highlighted sentence?
The ducal signet ring would have been a sign of the Duke's authority and power. The fact that it is missing concerns the Sardaukar guard who might be questioning whether or not this is even Duke Leto to begin with. (This annotation contains an image)
Yueh is _________ to the Sardaukar and the Baron.
Remember the agreed upon reward: that the Baron would reunite Yueh and his Wanna. Considering his tone in this sentence, what can you guess that will entail?
What is the effect of the simile in the highlighted sentence?
Hope is what allows Leto to recall this poison gas tooth, even though when Yueh installed it he vowed that he would not fulfill the plan of the traitor. Will he use it now that he has hope that Paul and Jessica are alive? What does this say about Yeuh and his intelligence?
What is the significance of the simile in the highlighted section? Which of the book's themes does it highlight?
These final memories of lovely things are a typical sending off for characters of importance. Both of these images that rest with the Duke in his final moments are of the sky, the heavens. Though Arrakis has been more of a hell for him and his family, even the pretty sunrise there suggests the peace of the afterlife.
Explain the significance of Leto's last thoughts?
It was the Padishah emperor who ordered the Sardaukar guard to ensure that Duke Leto had been killed respectfully. Clearly, the relationships between the main houses and families are competitive and seem more driven by power plays than respect. As the story continues to unfold, be sure to keep track of the relationships between the powerful houses.
What can you infer about the Baron from his request for a distraction?
This terrible purpose will continue to be a recurring theme for Paul. Here he is struggling with the fact that he does not feel immediate pain for the loss of his father. This is the part of the hero's journey that is called initiation. Paul is beginning to experience the conflicts that will propel him to his status as a leader and hero.
How are the values of the Atreides different from the values of the other ruling houses?
Jessica's dual role as mother and mentor make her character a complicated one. Though she does possess great strength of mind, she still struggles to negotiate the desire to comfort and care for her son with the need to let him have the important experiences that he must in order to fulfill his future.
What does Jessica use to try to avoid the terrifying grief and loss that she feels overcoming her?
Struggling with this new found recognition that he is vastly different from everyone else, Paul lashes out at his mother and blames her for his status as the possible Kwisatz Haderach.
Which of the following best captures the mood of this scene?
The use of a simile here to explain how Jessica received the information that she is the Baron's own daughter exaggerates the way she feels and shows the reader just how devastating and enraging this information must be.
Summarize Paul's experience as he has come to the realization of what he and his mother are? What does he seem resolved to do?
Book One Quiz
Watch this brief clip of an interview with Frank Herbert as you begin the second book of Dune. As Paul begins to transition to a leadership role, consider Herbert's comments on leadership and the book's characters and setting. (This annotation contains a video)
What emotion does Jessica's dream symbolize?
Jessica is struggling through grief to try to hold onto some sense of purpose and the ability to move forward in the face of such devastation. Herbert uses words like "ancestors" and "primitive cells" to help the reader understand how far back Jessica is searching for this strength and how difficult it is to attain.
As Paul and Jessica head out into the desert, which of the following dangers lie in wait?
The Atreides are learning that this attack was a full fledged, empire planned attack. Hawat still believes that Jessica was the traitor, though the reader knows she was not. Now that we know Halleck and Hawat have survived and joined the Fremen and that Jessica and Paul have survived but are alone in the desert, what can you predict about what may happen next?
What characteristics cause Hawat to consider which route to take in order to obtain justice? Remember the ideals and characteristics of the Atreides as you provide your answer.
Hawat recognizes that he does not fully understand the way of the Arakeens. The Fremen think of the tribe as a unit that works together, not as individuals who have their own unique roles. This causes the Fremen to seem cold and unfeeling to the Atreides. This structure in the Fremen world has come of necessity. Necessity now forces Hawat to try to understand this way of living.
This kind of short saying that includes a truth about life is called a _________.
Differing cultures and customs are often the cause for dispute. Though both groups (the Fremen and the Atreides) are in a difficult place, their differing sense of values and beliefs still prevent them from seeing the values in each other's ways. What causes us to hold on to the the things that we are familiar with, even when they may not serve a purpose for a given set of circumstances?
Which of the following is of most concern to the Fremen?
Watch the video below to learn more about literal and figurative language. (This annotation contains a video)
Identify an example of figurative language from the last few pages. Explain how Herbert's choice to use figurative language in place of literal language impacts your understanding of the section.
Read the following article about the theme of mind control and positive thinking. As you read, think about what each of the characters has faced so far. How does Frank Hebert use reveal their inner thoughts? How do those thoughts propel them forward to action? (This annotation contains a link)
In the article you read by Maria Konnikova published in Scientific America, you learned that training can affect the way we think and experience difficult situations. Jessica has her Bene Gesserit training, Paul has also used these techniques, and other characters have different sets of training to aid them in challenging situations. What sets of training can you recognize from your own culture that compare to the structures set in place in the book that encourage positive and controlled thinking? How are they alike and different?
Watch the following video about static and dynamic characters. How does this outburst of emotions from Paul propel him forward as either a static or dynamic character? (This annotation contains a video)
What does Paul suggest to do in order to solve this conflict and bring he and his mother out of hiding?
This is a moment of conflict in which, though we thought Jessica and Paul might be safe against the desert, the reader learns that our main characters will once again be on their own and up against impossible odds. This provides the reader with a sense of suspense and wonder that drives us to read on.
Which of the following might the arrows symbolize?
Watch the following video to learn more about what G-force is and what it feels like. (This annotation contains a video)
Which of the following could replace the word tangible in the highlighted sentence?
We know the Baron is right to question whether Paul and Jessica have survived or not, but based on Nefud's description it seems reasonable that he would be unsure. Does this quality make the Baron a wise man? Which of the Baron's qualities do seem to define him the most?
Why does Nefud question the Baron's commands?
The Baron intends to keep Hawat as a Mentat and to control him by keeping him always at the verge of death. The Baron believes that by controlling Hawat and elevating his Mentat powers, Hawat will lose loyalty to the Atreides. Based on your knowledge of the Atreides, does this seem like a reasonable plan?
The Baron seeks power through control and fear. How do other leaders seek power? What theme does this chapter highlight?
Here, we learn that the Baron was very likely in control when the Harkonnens ruled Arrakis before. This time around, the Baron seems to have other intentions, namely income. Income in this case is spice.
How does Baron see himself in relation to the Guild?
The system of government and rule in Dune is a feudal one. How does the chart below connect to or elaborate the relationships between the Emporer, the Duke and Baron, the people of Arrakis and others? Why is this system and important thing to understand in the context of this book? (This annotation contains an image)
According to the Baron, mercy is __________.
Visit the following website to read Psalm 23 from the Bible. Paul quotes a similar set of ideas from the Orange Catholic Bible. (This annotation contains a link)
Which of the following themes is being developed in this section?
As Paul begins to move through the initiation phase of his journey, he still struggles to understand all of the aspects of his nature and role as the potential Kwisatz Haderach. Here, we see that he recognizes the memory of this scene as if he has predicted its existence. As you continue to read, notice the ways in which Paul must come to grips with his new role and power.
What is the meaning of the word omnipresent?
A thumper would have been any primitive device that created sounds that would attract a sand worm and thus distract it from people trying to cross the desert. Watch the video below to see one fan's rendition of a thumper. (This annotation contains a video)
Which of the following words best reveals the mood of this setting?
Alkalinity measures the ability of a substance to neutralize an acid into a bicarbonate or carbonate (foam). Because spice is highly alkaline, and the paracompass has an acid based power pack (think batteries), Paul intends to use the combination to make a foam that will stop the sand from sliding as he attempts to free the backpack from the sandslide.
What might the hawks symbolize here? Use evidence from the text in your analysis.
Saquaro are desert dwelling cactus plants. Though they can grow to be quite big, the ones Paul and Jessica see here are called "scrawny." Jessica mentions that the plants could be the remains of a botanical testing station. Keep this in mind as you continue reading. (This annotation contains an image)
Which of the following statements best relates the feeling of the desert they are in?
This advice from Tuek is important. Though one might expect Tuek to be angry with the Harkonnens after they have killed his father, he understands that there are more important matters at hand. He then goes on to reference the interactions with the other powers in the guild as a "game." This says a lot about the motives and actions of the characters in this story.
Which of the following is the dominant emotion that Halleck feels?
A pogrom is an organized massacre of a particular ethnic group. The word came into popular use during WWII when many pogroms against the Jews and other targeted groups led to widespread violence and the Holocaust.
Compare and contrast Tuek and Halleck. What do each of these men value? What motivates them and characterizes them?
Count and Lady Fenring were the ones who lived at the Atreides compound on Arrakis before they moved in. Lady Fenring left the note for Jessica in the greenroom. You will learn more about Count Fenring in this book. He is a powerful character who has an important position within the families. A genetic-eunuch is one who cannot reproduce. Because he cannot have children or heirs, his position of power and influence is limited.
Which of the following themes does the highlighted section help develop?
Herbert's description of where Paul and Jessica are- caught right between retreat and safety- as well as the descriptions of the sounds they hear as they worm moves toward the thumper and then destroys it, all work together to create a sense of anticipation and suspense. Even without images, the vivid descriptions convey the sense of the characters' predicament.
Why is the Drum sand a problem?
The Fremen use the worms (or makers as they also call them) to travel in the desert. The "maker hooks" that Paul mentions come to him from a vision (again this is his power beginning to unfold) of something he has not seen yet. What hints help you understand why the Fremen might actually call a worm to them?
The highlighted sentence includes an example of _________.
How does the introduction to this chapter build upon the theme of the role of religion? What forces seem to shape religious beliefs and choices in the story?
Consider the description of this man. Who might this person be? Why would the author begin a chapter in this vague way? As you continue reading, consider such choices in the author's craft. What effect do they have on you as a reader?
Carrion is a term for the dead and decaying flesh of an animal. Carrion-eater birds are often called scavengers or vultures for they will eat whatever scraps of meat they can get.
What is the role of the on-going conversation between Kynes and his long-dead father in this moment before what seems certain to be Kynes's death?
Watch the following video on archetypes. We know that Paul is our hero. What is Kynes? (This annotation contains a video)
The nature of Kynes's death is _________.
Stilgar has been instructed to look for Paul, the possible Lisan al-Gaib, but Jessica knows she is another matter altogether. Out in the desert, it is difficult to care for extra baggage. Especially since she is pregnant, she knows how she must appear to them.
What is it that causes Stilgar to be interested in Paul and Jessica?
The Fremen are hesitant to believe in the legends and myths of the Lisan al Gaib. They seem ready to believe, but also have strict cultural structures to follow that make it hard for them to put faith in something that does not have proof to go with it.
Based on their agreement, what seems to be the most important thing to the Fremen?
There is something about the way that Herbert reveals Jessica's knowledge and her choices that gives her an air of manipulation. This makes her a very dynamic character. Self-preservation is clearly important to her, but so is the future of her son and unborn daughter.
What is shai-hulud?
Paul's sense of pride in front of Chani, the daughter of Liet Kynes, coupled with his visions and impression of her create a picture unlike that of any other girl Paul has encountered. What is Herbert setting the reader up for?
Summarize the interaction between Paul and Jessica and the Fremen tribe. What are some of the most significant factors in their acceptance and initiation of each other?
The weirding way is the ability to engage in unarmed attacks. Jessica is able to subdue with her voice and control with her desires. The Fremen, who do not have this training, are interested in learning her techniques as they try to figure out if she is authentic or not.
What is it that the Fremen do on the face of Arrakis that they know they must hide?
Jessica's thoughts about aligning herself with Stilgar reveal a lot about the role of marriage and relationships in the book. Many times, it seems that love and marriage are not entwined and that both sexes see themselves as parts of a larger scheme or game.
How do Stilgar's comments about leadership support the vision of leadership set forth by the Atreides? Does this vision of leadership fall in contrast to other visions of leadership in the book?
Adab is an Arabic concept that outlines proper etiquette. Visit the following website to read more about adab. (This annotation contains a link)
After reading about the Arabic concept of Adab, as well as the Adab and other socio-cultural and religious aspects of the Arakeens, what can you think of from your own culture that encompasses similar concepts? Be sure to address both the book and the article (linked again below) in your answer.http://sufism.org/lineage/sufism/excerpts-from-the-knowing-heart/adab-the-courtesy-of-the-path-2
The Fremen are a nocturnal people. Nocturnal animals conduct the majority of their activity at night and are restive during the day. The desert makes many demands of the Fremen that Paul and Jessica must adjust to.
What does this description say about Paul?
A literjon is a container for water. Paul and Jessica were given two literjons of water when they were left in the desert. The Fremen regard this as great wealth. Now that Jamis is challenging Paul to a duel of sorts, the two groups are arguing over what is right and wrong given the circumstances.
Which of the following words best conveys Jamis's tone?
Visit the following website to read about a classic hero: Jason. As you read the brief synopsis, consider the similarities and differences between Jason's and Paul's journeys. (This annotation contains a link)
Which of Jason's challenges or ordeals could you compare this initiation challenge to?
What do the reactions of the Fremen say about their faith in the story of what Paul and Jessica are? Stilgar thinks that Paul is just playing with Jamis, but Jessica knows that Paul has many disadvantages in this environment. How does Herbert use language to show the reader the complicated reality of this suspenseful scene?
Which of the following themes does Idaho's advice speak to?
Watch the film version of this important scene. What do the images reveal that the words do not, or vice-e-versa? (This annotation contains a video)
How do the film and written version of this important initiation rite compare? Which best conveys the importance of this event along Paul's path?
Ichwan Bedwine is a term used to encompass all of the sietches or communities of the Fremen. The full ceremony will be much like a funeral.
The highlighted sentence includes ________________.
It is unclear here whether or not Jessica is controlling Paul with her voice. Given Paul's own abilities, it seems unlikely that she is, but some other sense of power that she has over the decision making, or even just her power as a mother, makes it clear that Paul is demurring to her judgement.
Which of the following could be used to replace the word placate in the highlighted sentence?
This is an important step for Paul as he joins the Fremen. The Fremen place the importance of the community over the importance of the self. Though Paul is an important figure, even amongst the Fremen, he is still only a member of their community. This funeral for Jamis has also come to represent his welcome into the group.
Explain the discrepancy between Paul's tears and the interpretation of those tears by the Fremen. Why is this significant?
"Without commitment" shows that Stilgar instructs Chani to do what is normally an act of courtship (or dating) without the acceptance of a proposal or even the admission of interest. Paul does not understand the rituals of the Fremen and did not know what his request meant to them. This accidental exchange will prove to be interesting later as Chani and Paul's relationship develops.
Which of the following best captures the feeling Jessica conveys upon entering the sietch?
Bi-lal kaifa is Arabic for "without asking how." Many of the phrases and language segments in Dune come from the Arabic world. This phrase, being chanted in an almost religious way, reveals that the Fremen have faith in this seemingly impossible feat and will trust without asking why.
What is the significance of the metaphor in the highlighted section?
Feyd-Rautha (pictured below from the 1984 film version of the book) is the na-Baron (or the Baron in waiting. This part of the book reveals many things about the Baron's plans and accommodations for the young ruler-to-be. (This annotation contains an image)
What is the tone with which the Baron is presented?
Watch the following video on parallel plot. Throughout this book, we have been reading about multiple story lines that intersect. As you continue reading, think about this technique. Why would an author choose to structure a text this way? What effect does it have on you as a reader? (This annotation contains a video)
Why might the Count and Baron believe the southern desert is uninhabitable?
Salusa Secondus is a prison planet that is known for its extremely inhospitable conditions. According to the Dune legends, the Fremen remember Salusa Secondus (or S.S.) as the place where nine generations of Fremen lived as slaves before coming to Arrakis.
Count Fenring knows what the Baron is overlooking: that is is unlikely that Hawat has ever really ended his allegiance to the Atreides. Fenring knows that a mentat as powerful as Hawat is a dangerous man to have around.
Which of the following best characterizes the Baron's current situation?
Feyd Rautha will fight with advantages (as you will see). Not only do his slave gladiators come drugged, but his weapons are tipped with poisons. This set up is known to all, but still the charade is carried on. What might be the goal of such a futile exercise?
"Special plans sometimes involved special dangers" is an example of ____________.
Gladiators are not a new concept. The ancient Romans used gladiators for entertainment fights (see image below). Gladiators were often slaves or trained fighters and would battle against other slaves, animals or warriors. These spectator-filled events often ended in death. (This annotation contains an image)
What is unique about this particular fight? What is Feyd Rautha trying to prove? What does this say about his character?
Feyd-Rautha, the unfortunately groomed heir to the Harkonnen throne, is trying here to assert himself as an individual. He is setting himself up as a foil for Paul Atreides, the hero of our story. A foil is a character who contrasts with the main character in the story in order to highlight one or more of the protagonist's characteristics. A foil is not necessarily an antagonist, and there can be more than one in a story. Which characteristics might Feyd-Rautha highlight in Paul?
Why is the Baron not more excited for Feyd-Rautha's victory?
The Fenrings are clearly not aligned with any one but the Emperor. Here, we see that they understand the game they have just witnessed and that they are developing plans of their own. How does Herbert reveal their motives and plans in such a cryptic way?
What motive drives the Fenrings?
Though this is home now, Herbert's choice of language characterizes the sietch as more of an affront to the senses, not a welcoming, safe home.
____________ is an example of onomatopoeia.
Notice the language Herbert uses to characterize Harah. She "stamps" her feet, "husks" her voice, exclaims with injustice how she is "young." Harah is presented here as almost hot-headed, huffy, or pouty. Given that she just lost her husband and the father of her children, why is this reaction surprising? What does it say about her? The Fremen?
How can you explain Harah's reaction to Jamis's death?
This information reveals that the Fremen really have set up quite a community for themselves. Harah mentions machinery, seasons, factories, etc., however we will soon learn that the Fremen do not stay in a sietch forever.
What can you infer, based on the children's words, that Harah is referring to when she says, "What Liet taught us, we cannot pause an instant in that"?
Herbert adds gravity to this last chapter of book two by setting the scene as massive and creating a sense of impending changes. What can you predict might be about to happen here? How does the author use language here to paint the scene in a suspenseful way?
What is the meaning of the word perpetual as it is used in the highlighted sentence?
A hajra is when the tribe must uproot itself in the attempt to escape the Harkonnens or other enemies. This ordeal is difficult and strenuous, and the Reverend Mother knows it is her time to pass the torch to Jessica.
What is the mood of this scene?
This ceremony of enlightenment is what the Fremen have been waiting for in order to confirm their beliefs about Jessica and Paul. The ceremony is basically a drug-induced exploration of the mind and the powers that Jessica holds. Many non-fiction cultures have participated in similar activities in order to achieve a different level of understanding. Many Native American cultures, for example, used peyote (a psychoactive drug) in spiritual ceremonies.
What is a mote?
Because Jessica is pregnant, she is exposing not only herself, but also her unborn daughter to this test. The experience has the power to change them both. The following video clip is an interview with an actress who plays Jessica Atreides in a filmed version of the story. As you watch, think about Jessica's motives in the story. (This annotation contains a video)
Now that Jessica has undergone her transformation and survives, explain what you think her motives are in the book. What ideas, goals or emotions drive Lady Jessica?
Jessica has been lost in a past that was not her own. She is struggling between the real world and the drug-induced hypnosis of the lives of all her ancestors (as well as those of the previous Reverend Mother's) that came before.
Why is it now safe for Paul and the others to drink the water?
Watch the following video on foreshadowing. Do these visions count as foreshadowing? (This annotation contains a video)
How does Paul's and Chani's love compare to Leto's and Jessica's? What can you predict about them based on what has happened in this chapter?
Book Two Quiz
Watch the following video on pacing. How would you characterize the pacing of this book? (This annotation contains a video)
Feyd-Rautha just _______________ the Baron.
This is a reference to the event that occurred in the previous chapter when Feyd Rautha fought the un-drugged gladiator. Herbert gives the reader this clue in order to let us know how much time has elapsed.
Which of the following best characterizes the Baron in this scene?
The Baron gives Feyd Rautha a taste of the power he seeks for himself. Much like Hawat, the Baron also directs Fed Rautha's attention toward the Imperium and against the Emperor. Feyd Rautha does not see this yet.
What is the metaphor being used to describe the relationship between Feyd Rautha and the Baron?
The Sardaukar are loyal and strong because they must survive on the planet Salusa Secondus and are rescued only by the emperor who trains them for the Sardaukar. This is what makes them so formidable. They understand the most brutal type of existence and know that they would rather die then return to it.
Based on your knowledge of the values of the Atreides and the Emperor, which major differences do you think they employed in training their fighting forces? Which do you think would have produced the most loyal soldier?
A BBC article describes the Corrinos this way: "The Corrinos had been the Imperial House in the universe for many generations. They gained power through the use of the Sardaukar. The current Emperor, Shaddam IV, had no sons, but several daughters. Many houses were waiting for the chance to gain power by marrying into House Corrino. Shaddam threw his lot in with Baron Vladimir Harkonnen and provided troops for the invasion of Arrakis and the overthrow of Duke Leto Atreides." Visit the following site to learn more: http://news.bbc.co.uk/dna/place-lancashire/plain/A1148131 (This annotation contains a link)
The highlighted statement is a/an ________.
You have already learned about theme in general. Now, watch the video below to see how to look for multiple themes as they emerge. How many themes do you see emerging in the text? (This annotation contains a video)
Summarize the main changes that you see have taken place since you last read about Paul.
The content of the Bene Gesserit proverb here warns against the marriage of religion and politics. Jessica fears that Paul is fulfilling a mythical and religious role that is too closely tied to the political desires of both the Fremen and the Atreides. Reread this important highlighted section and be sure to keep these ideas in mind as you continue in the book.
What is most likely the reason that Jessica has never accepted the "marriage of youth" between Paul and Chani?
Herbert's description of the living arrangements here reinforces the image of the sealed tents, the never-ending sand, the dry horizon. These instances of imagery enhance the experience of reading.
Review the stages of the hero's journey in the following link:http://www.hccfl.edu/media/724354/archetypesforliteraryanalysis.pdfWhich stage is Paul in now?
The Fedaykin are Fremen death commandos. They are known to have pledged their lives in order to right a wrong. Fedaykin were portrayed in the film version as they appear in the picture below: (This annotation contains an image)
What can you infer that Paul is about to do?
This last moment of the chapter leaves us in suspense, wondering how Paul will fare as he attempts to ride his first maker. Plagued by his struggles to fully understand what is happening in the present, the future, or the past, Paul has to remind himself that this is happening now.
What is the meaning of the word alien as it is used in this sentence?
Remember that Alia is just a child, but that because she went through the water-changing ceremony while in her mother's womb, she is not really a child at all. (This annotation contains a link)
What can you infer happened at the birth of the child that was upsetting to the Fremen? Explain which contextual clues helped you understand this.
Alia, like Paul, did not ask for this role. She was simply born into it. Much like Paul struggled to understand his unique abilities, Alia must grapple with the desire to be normal and her inability to. Can you think of any other superheroes or unique characters who have had to overcome a similar problem?
Which of the following best characterizes Alia?
The way of the Fremen is such that a leader must be determined by who is the strongest man. Stilgar knows that Paul can best him, and the tribe is so enveloped in the structures of their culture that they are willing to lose Stilgar in order to have Paul as a leader. Paul is hesitant to follow this code.
What does Harah symbolize?
Watch the video clip below to see this scene as it was filmed for the 1984 movie. (This annotation contains a video)
How does the film clip of Paul riding the sand worm compare to the written version? Consider the mood that is created in each version as you write your answer.
This verbal challenge between Stilgar and Paul confirms what Stilgar has been hearing throughout the group and what he has known would be inevitable: Paul must seek to become the official leader of the Fremen. What Stilgar does not anticipate is that Paul wishes to change the course of things for the Fremen and will not challenge Stilgar.
What do Paul's dreams suggest?
The vision of Paul and the Fremen riding the sand worm exists in stark contrast to the first vision we got of the sand worm when it was attacking the spice factory. Keeping in mind that themes are sometimes slowly developed throughout a text, what might this change in perspective reveal about a theme or central idea of the text?
What is the storm that is referred to here? Consider what you have learned about literal and figurative language as you compose your response.
This skip in narrative is again an example of parallel plot. We are following the stories of many characters. We have not learned much about Gurney Halleck since he joined the smugglers. We should remember that he is under the impression that Jessica was the one to betray the Atreides.
Who is the man that challenges Gurney?
Notice how the author conveys a sense of cautious trust between Paul and Gurney. Their reunion is tempered with the understanding that many things have changed. Some of the larger factors that help the reader understand this situation are the choice to write from the third-person omniscient point of view and the revelation of inner thoughts, in addition to dialogue. How might a scene like this have been different if told only from one character's perspective?
What other type of character does Gurney remind you of?
Watch the first minute or so of the video below to see the agility and grace of gazelles. Why would the author compare Chani to this type of animal? (This annotation contains a video)
Why must Paul be so in tune with what the weather is like?
Bourkas are traditional Islamic coverings that typically cover everything except the eyes. (This annotation contains an image)
Which of the following statements best conveys the feelings of the Sardaukar?
What is the meaning of the word spirited as it is used in the highlighted sentence?
When Dune was published in 1965, Rachel Carson's Silent Spring had been recently released in 1962. Silent Spring had a huge impact on one of Dune's major themes: human impact on and control of ecology. Visit the website in the link below and read the short synopsis for the book Silent Spring. (This annotation contains a link)
As Paul and Stilgar talk about how ways change, consider how Frank Herbert might have been using Dune to discuss more important issues. After reading the synopsis of Silent Spring, what goals do you see in Herbert's masterpiece?
The highlighted sentence contains ______.
A tableau is a scene or painting. Jessica views the scene in real life and takes note of not only the images, but also the smells, sounds and feels.
This rhetorical question (one not meant to be answered, but used instead to get an audience to think about what is being said) is meant to suggest that to weaken the Fremen tribe by insisting on following the ways of old through a challenge between Paul and Stilgar is similar to handicapping oneself before a fight. Paul is trying to use rhetoric to change the minds of the people.
What does this message cylinder suggest to the Fremen?
Jessica reveals here that she is nervous thinking of her own changes. No doubt she has had to harden herself to the painful and sweet memories of the past. She is nervous to see Gurney for this reason, but does not suspect what he suspects of her.
Which of the following best characterizes Jessica at this point in the novel?
The Great Control is the overpowering ability to control others, even a skilled and trained fighter like Gurney Halleck. Paul and Jessica both still struggle to understand his role and powers.
Why does Gurney expose himself so?
This allusion to Eden is interesting given the nature of the religious beliefs and practices of these people. Remember that an allusion is a reference to a person, event, place, etc. that holds significant cultural meaning. What does Eden suggest in our culture? Is it the same for this one?
Explain the significance of the fact that the Water of Life is transformed from poison water in which a sand worm has been drowned.
Remember that foreshadowing can be obvious or concealed. In this case, Paul's thoughts, coupled with the knowledge you have from the rest of the book, should give you a pretty clear hint about what is to happen next.
Paul is about to _____________.
Subterfuge is another word for trickery. When Jessica says that this was a "subterfuge of necessity" what does that mean? Where else have the characters in the book resorted to trickery or lies in order to protect people or achieve a goal?
What is really happening to Paul?
An ewer, like the one pictured here, is a pitcher. (This annotation contains an image)
Explain the significance of Paul's statement: "One drop if it...so small...one drop."
Here, Paul suggests another important theme: the nature of balance. Balance and understanding have been struggles for many of the characters in Dune, but perhaps most for Paul. How has this experience helped to change his perspective on balance?
Based on the context of the sentence, what is a fulcrum?
Arrakeen is described as being "cold and gleaming in the light of the northern sun." How does the image below compare to this description? (This annotation contains an image)
What is the meaning of the simile in the highlighted section?
The description of Gurney Halleck as a troubadour warrior is an important characterization of him. Troubadours are traveling songsters and oral story tellers. In many cultures, troubadours were responsible for passing down tradition, values, and histories. This is an important role that Gurney Halleck plays in the story. (This annotation contains an image)
"What's eating you" is ________.
A cielago is a messenger. The Fremen are known to use bats or other trained flying animals as cielagos. (This annotation contains an image)
What is the mood of this chapter so far?
Herbert uses specific language here to convey the Baron's sense of shame and concern in front of the Emperor. Though we have seen the nature of the Baron, in front of this audience, he seems a different person altogether. Words like "downcast" and "covert glances" show the Baron's sense of humility.
Who is the Reverend Mother Gaius Helen Mohiam?
Watch the scene below from the film version of Dune in order to see one interpretation of the scene you are about to read. (This annotation contains a video)
Which of the following best characterizes Alia in this scene?
Alia seems calm and composed in the face of these threats. The others around her are beginning to lose their sense of composure though. Which words and descriptions show how the Reverend Mother, the Emperor and the Baron are all losing their sense of control?
Watch the brief film clip of this scene again:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jCBa2fEsmEHow do the two scenes compare?
Here, the Emperor realizes his forces have been infiltrated by Fremen. Now that the walls have been blasted through by Paul and the Fremen army, the Emperor knows that he will not last. He has been outsmarted. As they retreat, what do the Emperor's and the Reverend Mother's plans suggest?
What does this residency symbolize?
Eyes have been an important symbol in this book. In just one page here, we have seen Paul close his eyes to have the communication with Alia, open them to see the eyes of Stilgar "glaring with battle light," and notice the expression of shock in the Sardaukar's eyes. These are not coincidence. Why are the eyes so important here?
What characteristic causes Paul to extend this offer?
Though this is their son who has died, Paul knows that the fact that Chani has given water to the dead is of grave importance. Paul has seen Chani lose her father and face other difficult struggles, but this one seems to top them all. Still, the order of things, and some attention to a greater purpose seems to drive the Fremen.
What is the meaning of Paul's statement?
Rheumy means watery. Thufir Hawat is not well because he has been poisoned, for a long time, by the Baron Harkonnen. Now that the Baron is dead and he is being reunited with Paul, Hawat's fate is unknown. Without the antidote, he will not be able to survive.
What might explain why Thufir Hawat has acted the way he has?
As the end of the book approaches, it is worth thinking back to the place in which the story originated. Caladan was a place of beauty and luxury. How does this image compare to both the setting and the events of the majority of the book? Why is this significant? (This annotation contains an image)
What is Paul suggesting to the Princess Irulan?
Remember that kanly is an old vendetta. Even though Paul cannot be wasted to someone like Feyd Rautha, and Gurney longs for the vengeance of killing a Harkonnen, Paul knows he must fight Feyd Rautha under the ancient oath and for all that the Harkonnens have done to the Atreides.
Who does Jessica compare Paul to here?
Though Paul is undoubtedly the stronger fighter, the reader knows that Feyd Rautha fights with poison. Though we hope and feel that Paul will come out victorious, we have seen this battle play out before (with the gladiator). This final fight scene is particularly suspenseful because we know that this is unnecessary, especially after all that the Atreides have been through.
What can you infer based upon the Reverend Mother's thoughts?
Watch the video clip of this final fight scene. How does the film version of this differ from the written one? (This annotation contains a video)
Which of the two versions of the fight scene had a greater impact on you? Why?
In this negotiation with the Emperor for Irulan, Paul requests the entire CHOAM company and its holdings as a dowry (or bride price). These are the types of negotiations that take love out of the equation when it comes to marriage. The houses of power align themselves for greater power. Love is not part of the bargain.
Which of the following themes does this section address?
Book Three Quiz