The Worst Hard Time

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In a tour de force of historical reportage, Timothy Egan’s National Book Award–winning story rescues an iconic chapter of American history from the shadows.

 

The dust storms that terrorized the High Plains in the darkest years of the Depression were like nothing ever seen before or since. Following a dozen families and their communities through the rise and fall of the region, Timothy Egan tells of their desperate attempts to carry on through blinding black dust blizzards, crop failure, and the death of loved ones. Brilliantly capturing the terrifying drama of catastrophe, he does equal justice to the human characters who become his heroes, “the stoic, long-suffering men and women whose lives he opens up with urgency and respect” (New York Times). In an era that promises ever-greater natural disasters, The Worst Hard Time is “arguably the best nonfiction book yet” (Austin Statesman Journal) on the greatest environmental disaster ever to be visited upon our land and a powerful reminder about the dangers of trifling with nature.

This e-book includes a sample chapter of SHORT NIGHTS OF THE SHADOW CATCHER.

Curriculet Details
192 Questions
125 Annotations
3 Quizzes

Designed for students in 8th grade, this free digital curriculum contains annotations explaining main idea, types of sources and historical people and events. It also contains interactive videos that support comprehension, such as videos about hyperbole and using the box and bullets method for identifying the main idea. Over the course of the book, students will answer Common Core questions and quizzes related to the subjects of the Dust Bowl and the relationship between man and nature. This free online unit will increase student engagement while building reading comprehension.

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Introduction: Live Through This

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Which of the words below is the closest in meaning to "spell" as it is used in the sentence? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
What does "it" refer to in the selected text? 
Personification is a figure of speech in which a thing, an idea or an animal is given human attributes. The non-human objects are portrayed in such a way that we feel they have the ability to act like human beings. For example, when the author says, “Not a river dancing away, life in its blood” he is giving the river the ability to dance, which is a human quality. Thus, we can say that the river has been personified in the given sentence. The video below explains more about personification. 
Learn more about the Coronado and the mystery of the seven cities of gold at the link below. (This annotation contains a link)
The Comanche are a Plains Indian tribe whose historic territory, known as Comancheria, consisted of present day eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, and most of northwest Texas. The Comanche people are federally recognized as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma. Learn more about the Comanche tribe at the link below. (This annotation contains a link)
Foreshadowing is a literary device in which a writer gives an advance hint of what is to come later in the story. Foreshadowing often appears at the beginning of a story or a chapter and helps the reader develop expectations about the coming events in a story. There are various ways of creating foreshadowing. A writer may use dialogues of characters to hint at what may occur in future. In addition, any event or action in the story may throw a hint to the readers about future events or action. Even a title of a work or a chapter title can act as a clue that suggests what is going to happen. As you read this book, think about and compare the experiences of the settlers who have humility and those that lack it. 
The selected text is a reference to the story of Lot and his wife from Genesis 19:26 in the Bible. Read the entire story at the link below. (This annotation contains a link)
You will find as you read that the author uses many similes to compare people, places, and events in the story to familiar objects. A simile is a figure of speech that makes a comparison, showing similarities between two different things. Unlike a metaphor, a simile draws resemblance with the help of the words “like” or “as”. Therefore, it is a direct comparison. We can find simile examples in our daily speech. We often hear comments like “John is as slow as a snail.” Snails are notorious for their slow pace and here the slowness of John is compared to that of a snail. The use of “as” in the example helps to draw the resemblance. While not as commonly used as "like" or "as", there are other similes made with adverbs or words such as "than" and "as if." The selected text compares the dust storms to a curtain being drawn across the world. 
The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century transportation route through central North America that connected Franklin, Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. Read more about the Santa Fe Trail at the link below.  (This annotation contains a link)
A homesteader had only to be the head of a household or at least 21 years of age to claim a 160 acre parcel of land. Settlers from all walks of life including newly arrived immigrants, farmers without land of their own from the East, single women and former slaves came to meet the challenge of "proving up" and keeping this "free land." Each homesteader had to live on the land, build a home, make improvements and farm for 5 years before they were eligible to "prove up." A total filing fee of $18 was the only money required, but sacrifice and hard work exacted a different price from the hopeful settlers. 
The Ogallala aquifer (pronounced OH-GA-LA-LA) is one of the largest aquifer systems in the world. It stretches across all or portions of eight states generally from north to south to include South Dakota, Nebraska, Wyoming, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas and underlies about 174,000 square miles. Read more about the Ogallala Aquifer at the link below. (This annotation contains a link)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
What can be inferred from the selected text? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
What does the selected text reveal about Jeanne Clark's personality? 
George White's Scandals were a long-running string of Broadway revues produced by George White that ran from 1919–1939, modelled after the Ziegfeld Follies. The "Scandals" launched the careers of many entertainers, including W.C. Fields, the Three Stooges, Ray Bolger, Helen Morgan, Ethel Merman, Ann Miller, Bert Lahr, and Rudy Vallée. Louise Brooks, Alice White, and Eleanor Powell got their show business start as lavishly dressed (or underdressed) chorus girls strutting to the "Scandal Walk". Much of George Gershwin's early work appeared in the 1920-24 editions of Scandals. The image below is from a 1935 production. (This annotation contains an image)
John Henry "Doc" Holliday (August 14, 1851 – November 8, 1887) was an American gambler, gunfighter, and dentist of the American Old West who is usually remembered for his friendship with Wyatt Earp and his involvement in the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral. The image below shows Doc Holliday in 1872 at age 20. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
How do people who live on the southern plains in 1934 know when a dust storm is coming? 
The Panama Canal is a 77.1-kilometre (48 mi) ship canal in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean (via the Caribbean Sea) to the Pacific Ocean. The image below shows the Panama Canal's route across the country of Panama. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
What does the selected text reveal about the people who settled the southern plains? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
What does the selected text mean as it is used in the passage? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Based on evidence from the text, briefly explain why Melt's aunt would want to keep the White family's Native American heritage a secret? 
The Last Man Club was a mutual support group for farmers that chose to stay in the American Great Plains in spite of the devastation caused by the Dust Bowl natural disaster of the 1930s. It was the first American Dream. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Which of the excerpts from the text best helps to explain the meaning of "Exoduster" as it is used in the passage? 
John Steinbeck is a reference to the American author of twenty-seven books, including sixteen novels, six non-fiction books, and five collections of short stories. He is widely known for the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel The Grapes of Wrath (1939), East of Eden (1952) and the novella Of Mice and Men (1937). Steinbeck wrote about the Dust Bowl exiles in "The Grapes of Wrath." The image below is a photo of Steinbeck in 1962. (This annotation contains an image)
Are the selected statements a fact or an opinion? A statement of fact can be proved true or false. A statement of opinion is what someone believes or thinks. There may or may not be a good reason to think this way. Words that give you clues that a statement is an opinion are believe, like, and should. These words express how someone feels. Now that you know more about the difference between a fact and an opinion can you determine if the selected statements are facts or opinions. Do you need more information to make a decision? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.2
What does the author mean when he states "Afterward, some farmers got religion?" Write a brief response in the space provided using textual evidence to guide you. 
The final sentence of the introduction hints at the author's purpose for writing "The Worst Hard Time." Can you it figure out from the text?  

1. The Wanderer

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
What can the reader infer about cowboys from the selected text? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Which of the phrases below is the closest in meaning to "sneeze" as it is used in the passage? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
What can you infer about the effect of the railroad on the economy of the Midwest from the selected text? 
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján was a Spanish conquistador, who visited New Mexico and other parts of what are now the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542. Coronado had hoped to conquer the mythical Seven Cities of Gold. His name is often Anglicized as Vasquez de Coronado. The image below is a portrait of Coronado.  (This annotation contains an image)
A specialist in the systematic study of past human life and culture by the recovery and examination of remaining material evidence, such as graves, buildings, tools, and pottery. 
An author draws from many different sources in writing a nonfiction book. This book is no different. Mr Egan's sources can be found at the end of the book. There are three different types of sources that authors usually draw from in providing support for the claims they make in writing. Primary sources are original materials. They are from the time period involved and have not been filtered through interpretation or evaluation. Secondary sources are accounts written after the fact with the benefit of hindsight. They are interpretations and evaluations of primary sources. Tertiary sources consist of information which is a distillation and collection of primary and secondary sources. The quote attributed to the Comanche chief Ten Bears is from a letter the chief wrote to Civil War General William Tecumseh Sherman in 1867. The letter is considered a primary source because it is Ten Bear's actual words as he wrote them and not an interpretation. The entire letter can be found at the link below. (This annotation contains a link)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
How does the selected paragraph contribute to your understanding of mankind's relationship with nature and the southern plains? Write a brief response in the space provided. Include evidence from the text to support your response. 
The Medicine Lodge Treaty is the overall name for three treaties signed between the United States government and southern Plains Indian tribes in October 1867, intended to bring peace to the area by relocating the Native Americans to reservations in Indian Territory and away from European-American settlement. The treaty was never ratified by either of the tribes involved. The legality of the treaty remained in question until the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the United States in 1903. 
Caprock Escarpment is a term used in Texas and Eastern New Mexico to describe the geographical transition point between the level high plains of the Llano Estacado and the surrounding rolling terrain. The image below is a photograph of the Caprock Escarpment. (This annotation contains an image)
A nester is a squatter or a homesteader who takes up land on open range for a farm. The image below shows a family of nesters. (This annotation contains an image)
The meridian 100° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole. In the United States the meridian 100° west of Greenwich forms the eastern border of the Texas panhandle with Oklahoma. The map below shows the 100th meridian in red. (This annotation contains an image)
Quanah Parker was Comanche/English-American from the Comanche band Noconis. He was one of the last Comanche chiefs. The US appointed Quanah principal chief of the entire nation once the people had gathered on the reservation. Quanah was a Comanche chief, a leader in the Native American Church, and the last leader of the powerful Quahadi band before they surrendered at the battle of the Great Plains and moved to a reservation in Indian Territory. The image below shows Quanah Parker in ceremonial clothing. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Which of the statements below is closest in meaning to the selected text? 
The XIT Ranch in the 1880s was the largest range in the world under fence and it all laid in the Texas Panhandle. It's three million acres sprawled from the old Yellow House headquarters, near what is now Lubbock, Texas, northward to the Oklahoma Panhandle, in an irregular strip that was roughly 30 miles wide. The map below shows the location of and the enormous expanse of the XIT Ranch. (This annotation contains an image)
The "Eden of Texas" is a reference to the Garden of Eden in the Bible. The Garden of Eden was a paradise where the first man and woman had all they needed to survive. The reference here implies that the southern plains was similar to the Garden of Eden in both beauty and the availability of resources. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.6
Mr. Egan states in the Notes and Resources section of the book that "Wesley L. Hockett's quotes are from his oral history on file in the Special Collections of the Amarillo Public Library, Amarillo, Texas.” What type of source is Mr. Egan using based on this information? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.2
How does the selected text help support the theme of racism as it existed on the southern plains after the Civil War? Write a brief response in the space provided. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
Which of the following events below did not help bring about the end of the XIT ranch? 
The selected text is an example of hyperbole. Hyperbole is a figure of speech, which involves an exaggeration of ideas for the sake of emphasis. As you read about the real estate boom in the second chapter look for other examples of hyperbole. The video below provided a deeper explanation of hyperbole. (This annotation contains a video)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
How does the imagery of the high plains as an ironing board in the selected text further your understanding of the geology of the area? Write a brief response in the space provided. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.6
The selected text is from Marcy's book about the expedition called "Exploration of the Red river of Louisiana, in the year 1852." A book written by an explorer is an example of which type resource? 
The full text of Robert Marcy's Exploration of the Red River of Louisiana, in the Year 1852 is available at the link below. (This annotation contains a link)
The full text of Campbell's 1907 Soil Culture Manual is available at the link below. (This annotation contains a link)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
Use your own words to explain the meaning of the aphorism in the selected text. How does the aphorism help you to understand life on the southern plains in the early part of the 20th Century?  
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
The selected text is an example of  
The prohibition of alcohol, often referred to simply as prohibition, is the legal act of prohibiting the manufacture, storage, transportation and sale of alcohol and alcoholic beverages. The term can also apply to the periods in the histories of the countries during which the prohibition of alcohol was enforced. Prohibition in the United States lasted from 1920 until 1933 with the ratification of the Twenty-First Amendment to the Constitution. 
You are most likely getting the hang of identifying sources at this point. The next step after identifying the type of source an author is using is understanding how a source contributes to the overall story. For example, a diary like that belonging to Jim Pigman is a primary source because it is an account of someone who lived during the time he is writing about. A quote from a primary source helps support an author's claims about a person, place, or event by giving it credibility. The reader can trust Mr. Egan's claim that the prohibition era was a time of excessive alcohol consumption because Mr. Pigman was there to witness the events of the time. 
The image below shows Doc Dawson's sanitarium as it looked at the time of the story. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.2
Which of the statements below most closely states an inference that is supported by the selected text? 
The image below shows Bam White at the time of the Dust Bowl. (This annotation contains an image)
The structure of informational text can take one of five different forms. Description text explains what a topic looks like or acts like. Look for paragraphs in the text that describe the dust storms that plagued the plains in the 1930s. Problem and solution structures present a problem and then explain how to solve the problem. There are also texts that compare and contrast people, places, and events. Cause and effect writing explains what happens and why it happens. Finally, some texts are written in chronological or sequential order. The structure of "The Worst Hard Time" varies as the book unfolds and depend on the information being related. The selected text is an example of a flashback, or a story that takes place sometime before the main narrative of the story. Flashbacks interrupt the sequence of the story to explain why something or someone became the way they are in the present. The use of flashbacks is called a nonlinear narrative structure. What type of structure have you noticed in the first two sections of the book? Look for the different types of structure as you read.  
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.2
Chapter 1 introduces some of the first people who settled the southern plains and their reasons for coming to the area. Use your own words to write a brief summary of the chapter explaining who the early settlers are and why they came to the plains? Use only facts from the story. Do not include your opinion. 

2. No Man's Land

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
The promoters are exaggerating the truth about Boise City in order to entice people to move there. The promoters are using __________ to sell the land. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
The selected text contains which of the literary devices listed below? 
The Oklahoma Panhandle is the extreme western region of the state of Oklahoma, comprising Cimarron County, Texas County, and Beaver County. Its name comes from the similarity of its shape to the handle of a cooking pan. The three Oklahoma counties that make up No Man's Land are shown in red below.  (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Based on the information in the text, which of the words below is the closest in meaning to "hump-back cows?" 
The image below shows Hazel Lucas and her son, Charles Shaw. (This annotation contains an image)
Much of the prime low-lying alluvial land along rivers had been homesteaded by early 1900. The Enlarged Homestead Act was passed in 1909 to enable dryland farming. It increased the number of acres for a homestead to 320 acres (1.3 km2) given to farmers who accepted more marginal lands (especially in the Great Plains), which could not be easily irrigated. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.5
How does the image help further your understanding of this chapter? Explain how the image of the family and their sod house helps you to understand the setting (the time and the place) of the book. Use textual evidence when appropriate. 
The main idea of a paragraph is the point of the passage, minus all the details. The selected passage is about how the settlers fear the prairie fires as stated in the first sentence of the paragraph. The remainder of the selected text is details that further the reader's understanding of why they feared the prairie fires. The video below explains how to find the main idea of a text using the box and bullets method. (This annotation contains a video)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.5
The selected passage is an example of 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.2
Which of the excerpts from the text best identifies the main idea of the selected passage. 
The image below is a labelled diagram of a horse-drawn walking plow. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
The selected text is an example of personification, or giving human characteristics (muscles) to nonhuman objects (the wind). In the space provided below, explain how personification helps the reader to better understand the wind. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.2
What topic or idea is presented in the selected text? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.2
The topic of the selected passage is Hazel's crush on Charlie Shaw. Which of the excerpts from the text best supports the topic of the selected passage? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
Write a brief comparison of the school in the photograph and your school. How is the school different from contemporary schools? What similarities do you see between your school and the sod schoolhouse? 
Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was the 31st President of the United States (1929–1933). Hoover, born to a Quaker family, was a professional mining engineer. He achieved American and international prominence in humanitarian relief efforts in war-time Belgium and served as head of the U.S. Food Administration during World War I. As the United States Secretary of Commerce in the 1920s under Presidents Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge, he promoted partnerships between government and business under the rubric "economic modernization". The image below shows Herbert Hoover during his term as president. (This annotation contains an image)
F. Scott Fitzgerald is widely regarded as one of the greatest writers of the twentieth century. He chronicled the Jazz Age of the 1920s in the United States. The quote in the text is from his novel, "The Great Gatsby". The image below shows Fitzgerald during the roaring 1920s. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Which of the statements below best explains why Hazel and Charlie returned to Oklahoma? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.8
The selected text is an opinion. True or false? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
Briefly explain in the space provided how the tools used to cultivate the land changed over time. Do not include your opinion. Include at least two pieces of evidence from the text to support your explanation. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
How does the settlers' access to financing change as more settlers arrive on the plains? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
Which of the statements below best describes how the lives of the settlers changed in the 1920s? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
What conflict exists between the nesters and the cowboys? Would the Great Plow-up have occurred if the nesters agreed with the ranchers? In the space provided, respond thoughtfully to the questions above. Include textual evidence when it is appropriate. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.2
Create an argument in the space below explaining why the first section of the book is called "Promise." Use evidence from the text you have read so far to support your response. 

3. Creating Dalhart

Sharecropping is a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on the land. Sharecropping has a long history and there are a wide range of different situations and types of agreements that have used a form of the system. Some are governed by tradition,and others by law. Sharecropping has benefits and costs for both the owners and the croppers. It encourages the cropper to remain on the land throughout the harvest season to work the land, solving the harvest rush problem. At the same time, since the cropper pays in shares of his harvest, owners and croppers share the risk of harvests being large or small and prices being high or low. Because tenants benefit from larger harvests, they have an incentive to work harder and invest in better methods. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Use your own words to explain the meaning of "economy of scale" based on the information presented in the text. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.2
Which of the excerpts from the selected text states the main idea of the passage? 
George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an American actor, director, writer and producer who worked in theater, radio and film. The image below shows a young Orson Welles. (This annotation contains an image)
The image below is a drawing of the Felton Opera House. (This annotation contains an image)
William Penn Adair "Will" Rogers (November 4, 1879 – August 15, 1935) was an American cowboy, vaudeville performer, humorist, social commentator and motion picture actor. He was one of the world's best-known celebrities in the 1920s and 1930s. The image below shows Will Rogers. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Which of the statements below best explains why Southern families as well as the Scots-Irish and Welsh moved to plains? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
An enormous amount of land is cut up that was "never suppose to be nested or cut up." This fact contradicts the opinion expressed in the selected text. In the space provided, write an analysis explaining the contradiction. 

4. High Plains Deutsch

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
Which of the statements below most closely explains why the price of wheat fell significantly by the summer of 1929? 
The Volga is the longest river in Europe; it is also Europe's largest river in terms of discharge and watershed. It flows through central Russia and is widely viewed as the national river of Russia. Eleven of the twenty largest cities of Russia, including the capital, Moscow, are situated in the Volga's drainage basin. The map below shows the path of the Volga's main tributary. (This annotation contains an image)
Tsar or czar is a title used to designate certain European Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers. Nicholas II served as the czar of Russia from 1894 until his assassination in 1917. Nicholas is the czar that George Ehrlich is referencing in the text. The image below is a portrait of Nicholas II in a military uniform. (This annotation contains an image)
You can't always determine if a source is primary or secondary just because of the source it is found in. Articles in newspapers and magazines are usually considered secondary sources. However, if a story in a newspaper about the Dust Bowl is an eyewitness account, that would be a primary source. If the reporter, however, includes additional materials he or she has gathered through interviews or other investigations, the article would be a secondary source. An interview in the newspaper would be a primary source, but a review of an album would be a secondary source. Scholarly journals include research articles with primary materials, but they also have review articles that are not. What type of source do you think the selected text is? 
Filzstiefel shoes are felt boots. 
Agronomy is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and land reclamation. 
Peter III (21 February 1728 – 17 July [O.S. 6 July] 1762) (Russian: Пётр III Фëдорович, Pyotr III Fyodorovich) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. The German Peter could hardly speak Russian and pursued a strongly pro-Prussian policy, which made him an unpopular leader. He was likely assassinated as a result of a conspiracy led by his German wife Princess Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg, who succeeded him to the throne as Catherine II. The image below shows a Peter III and Catherine the Great. (This annotation contains an image)
The Bolsheviks are members of a wing of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers’ Party, which, led by Lenin, seized control of the government in Russia (October 1917) and became the dominant political power.  
Yekaterina Alexeevna or Catherine II, also known as Catherine the Great (May 2, 1729 – November 17, 1796), was the most renowned and the longest-ruling female leader of Russia, reigning from 9 July 1762 until her death in 1796 at the age of sixty-seven. Her reign was called Russia's golden age. The image below is a portrait of Catherine.  (This annotation contains an image)
The Seven Years' War was a war that took place between 1754 and 1763 with the main conflict being in the seven-year period 1756–1763. It involved most of the great powers of the time and affected Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines. The war was driven by the competing interests among the great powers of Europe. Great Britain competed with both France and Spain over trade and colonies. Meanwhile rising power Prussia was struggling with Austria for dominance within and outside the Holy Roman Empire in central Europe. 
A reference to the song "Big Rock Candy Mountain." The song was first recorded by Harry McClintock in 1928 and is a folk music song about a hobo's idea of paradise. The video below is an animated version of the song. As you watch and listen, think about how the song presents the ideas of bounty and freedom. How are the ideas presented in the song similar to those shared by the settlers in "The Worst Hard Time?" (This annotation contains a video)
The Mennonites are a Christian group based around the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496–1561) of Friesland (at that time, a part of the Holy Roman Empire). The early teachings of the Mennonites were founded on the belief in both the mission and ministry of Jesus, which the original Anabaptist followers held to with great conviction despite persecution by the various Roman Catholic and Protestant states. 
Alexander II of Russia (April 29, 1818 in Moscow – March 13 ,1881 in Saint Petersburg) was the Emperor of Russia from March 2, 1855 until his assassination in 1881. He was also the King of Poland and the Grand Prince of Finland. Alexander was the most successful Russian reformer since Peter the Great. His most important achievement was the emancipation of serfs in 1861, for which he became known as Alexander the Liberator. The image below is a portrait of Alexander II. (This annotation contains an image)
The selected text is a reference to the biblical Book of Genesis 15:18-21 in which God promised land to the Israelites. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
Which of the statements below best explains why the German Volga moved to the southern plains? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Based on the evidence in the text, what can the reader infer is the cause of the Volga German's habit for excessive cleaning? 
A dulcimer is a group of stringed musical instruments that are played on the lap by plucking. The most common types are the Appalachian dulcimer and the hammered dulcimer. The image below shows an Appalachian dulcimer. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Which of the indian tribes is traditionally known as the "Lords of the Plains?" 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.2
Which of the statements below best identifies the main idea of the selected text? 
Kraut is a German word recorded in English from 1918 onwards as a derogatory term for a German, particularly a German soldier during World War I and World War II. 
Wilhelm II or William II (27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. He was the eldest grandson of the British Queen Victoria and related to many monarchs and princes of Europe, three notable contemporary relations being his first cousins King George V of the United Kingdom, founder of the House of Windsor, Marie of Romania, Queen consort of Romania and the Czarina Alix of Hesse, consort of his second cousin Tsar Nicholas II of the House of Romanov, the last ruler of the Russian Empire before the Russian Revolution of 1917 which deposed the monarchy. The image below shows Kaiser Wilhelm. (This annotation contains an image)
Ellis Island, in Upper New York Bay, was the gateway for millions of immigrants to the United States as the nation's busiest immigrant inspection station from 1892 until 1954. The island is now a part of the United States National Park Service. Learn more about this fascinating monument at the link below. (This annotation contains a link)

5. Last of the Great Plowup

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.8
The selected text a is a provable fact? True or false? 
The market in which shares are issued and traded, either through exchanges or over-the-counter markets. Also known as the stock market, it is one of the most vital areas of a market economy because it gives companies access to capital and investors a slice of ownership in a company with the potential to realize gains based on its future performance. This market can be split into two main sectors: the primary and secondary market. The primary market is where new issues are first offered. Any subsequent trading takes place in the secondary market.  
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
According to the text, what is the main cause of the severe storms that roll across the plains in May and June?  
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Which of the choices is not a way that the wheat surplus was utilized by the settlers?  
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
Use your own words to explain how the Stock Market crash of 1929 directly and indirectly impacts the lives of the people who live on the plains. Use evidence from the text to support your response. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Which of the statements below most closely defines "foreclosure" as it is used in the passage? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.6
Use your own words to explain why the nesters do not trust the cowboys or the ranchers who tell them ripping up the grass is not a good idea. Use textual evidence to support your response. 
Don Juan de Oñate y Salazar (1550–1626) was a Spanish Conquistador, explorer, and colonial governor of the Santa Fe de Nuevo México province in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. He led early Spanish expeditions to the Great Plains and Lower Colorado River Valley, encountering numerous indigenous tribes in their homelands there. Oñate founded settlements within the province and in the present day American Southwest. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
According to the text what does the hundred-dollar bill symbolize to Uncle Dick Coon? 
The selected sentence is an example of situational irony. Irony is used by authors to convey a meaning that is the opposite of what something literally means. Situational irony is a specific type of irony in which the outcome of someone's actions is the opposite of what is expected. The farmers tied their wealth to the land which they perceived to be permanent and able to continuously produce a product. The land ends up costing the farmers everything in the end because it is not inexhaustible and far from permanent. The video below explains situational irony. (This annotation contains a video)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.6
Which of the statements below best tells the author's purpose for including the selected text at this point in the book? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Based on the text, which statement below best describes a suitcase farmer? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
Use your own words to explain how the revolution in technology contributes to the Dust Bowl. 
Speculation is the practice of engaging in risky financial transactions in an attempt to profit from short or medium term fluctuations in the market value of a tradable good. 
Quiz #1 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
How are black dusters different from sandstorms? How are the similar? Use the space below to compare and contrast the two types of storms and how they impact the settlers on the plains. 

6. First Wave

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Insolvent means  
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
How do you think the people felt after discovering their money and savings were gone? 
Below is a picture of Mae West.  (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
A synonym for vagrancy would be 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
What could be said about McCarty's character after deciding to look for positive things and emphasizing good news even through the depression?   
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
Do you feel that people have changed their view of the death penalty compared to those in 1901?  Why or why not? 
Read more about the High Plains environment at the link below. (This annotation contains a link)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
The Dust Bowl affected everyone, including children. If you were a child during this time, how do you think you would feel? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Which of the following is an antonym for  lethargic?  

7. A Darkening

Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was the 31st President of the United States (1929–1933). Hoover achieved American and international prominence in humanitarian relief efforts in war-time Belgium and served as head of the U.S. Food Administration during World War I. Hoover served as the United States Secretary of Commerce in the 1920s under Presidents Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge. In the presidential election of 1928, Hoover easily won the Republican nomination, despite having no elected-office experience. Hoover is the most recent cabinet secretary to be elected President of the United States, as well as one of only two Presidents (along with William Howard Taft) elected without electoral experience or high military rank. Hoover sustained a large defeat in the election of 1932, having procured only 39.7 percent of the popular vote to Roosevelt's 57.4 percent. 
The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie, Tin Lizzy, T‑Model Ford, Model T, or T) is an automobile that was produced by Henry Ford's Ford Motor Company from October 1, 1908, to May 27, 1927. It is generally regarded as the first affordable automobile, the car that opened travel to the common middle-class American. The image below shows the model T.  (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
It appears that the cancer doctor in Boise City took advantage of Folkers. Create an argument to defend or refute this statement.   
Boise City was founded in 1908 by developers J. E. Stanley and A. J. Kline, who published and distributed brochures promoting the town as an elegant, tree-lined city with paved streets, numerous businesses, railroad service, and an artesian well. They sold 3,000 lots to buyers who discovered, on their arrival, that none of the information in the brochure was true. Stanley and Kline were convicted of fraud and sent to Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary. The town nevertheless took shape and incorporated on July 20, 1925. The image shows Boise City in 1928. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
Would you agree that Murray was a racist?  Why or why not? 
The Ogallala Aquifer is a shallow water table aquifer located beneath the Great Plains in the United States. One of the world's largest aquifers, it underlies an area of approximately 174,000 mi² (450,000 km²) in portions of eight states: South Dakota, Nebraska, Wyoming, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas. It was named in 1898 by N.H. Darton from its locality near the town of Ogallala, Nebraska. The aquifer is part of the High Plains Aquifer System, and rests on the Ogallala Formation, which is the principal geologic unit underlying 80% of the High Plains. The image below shows the vast expanse of the Ogallala Aquifer. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Subsistence farming refers to 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
When farmers worked the land and then left it, the land would become empty, dead, and transient. Transient means 
Llano Estacado is commonly known as the Staked Plain. It is a region in the Southwestern United States that encompasses parts of eastern New Mexico and northwestern Texas. One of the largest mesas or tablelands on the North American continent, the elevation rises from 3,000 feet (900 m) in the southeast to over 5,000 feet (1,500 m) in the northwest, sloping almost uniformly at about 10 feet per mile (1.9 m/km). The image below shows the Llano Estacado. (This annotation contains an image)

8. In a Dry Land

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
During the arid months when water was scarce, some animals became so prevalent that they became a nuisance. Which of the animals below did NOT become a problem as a result from the drought? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
Are the rabbit drives humane? Create an argument for or against the practice. Use textual evidence to support your reasoning. 
Thomas E. Ketchum (October 31, 1863 – April 26, 1901), known as Black Jack, was a cowboy who later turned to a life of crime. He was hanged in 1901 for attempted train robbery. The image below shows Black Jack Ketchum. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Which of the sentences below best explains why people changed their minds about Black Jack Ketchum? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
According to the text, how were Hazel and her husband able to survive the Dust Bowl? 
Hope is a powerful attitude to have in times of great crisis. As you read, look for examples of hope and how it impacts the lives of the settlers.  
Learn more about Uncle Bill Baker, the Kenton Caves, and the mummy at the link below. (This annotation contains a link)
Henery Oscar One Bull (circa 1853-1947) was a Lakota Sioux man best known for being the nephew and adopted son of the great holy man, Sitting Bull. The image below shows One Bull. (This annotation contains an image)
Mexican Texas is the name given by Texas history scholars to Texas during the period between 1821 and 1836, when Texas was an integral part of Mexico. The term "old Mexico" usually refers to the country of Mexico as it exists today. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.8
Reflect carefully on all you have read until now. Do you agree or disagree with Hugh Bennett's opinion in the selected text? Can the destruction of the land be attributed entirely to mankind's mistakes or to nature's whims? Create an argument for one side or the other. Use textual evidence to support your argument. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
According to the text, how can settlers leaving the land "to blow" lead to the starvation of the country? 

9. New Leader, New Deal

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
What do you think "living close to the bone" means?   
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
"If a man has not made a million dollars by the time he is forty, he is not worth much" was a statement that Hoover made when things were good for America. Do you think he later regretted making that statement? Why or why not? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Roosevelt called for faith "in the forgotten man at the bottom of the economic pyramid."  Who do you think he was referring to in this statement?   
The video at the link below shows Roosevelt's acceptance speech at the 1936 National Democratic Convention. The band begins to play "Happy Days Are Here Again" at the end of the speech. (This annotation contains a link)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
An unscrupulous individual would  
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Conservation refers to 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
President Roosevelt was not optimistic after reading a farmer's sign in North Dakota. Why do you think he wasn't optimistic?   

10. Big Blows

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Appreciable means 
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages from point to point and point to multipoint over various types of communications channels. They were adapted to provide a user interface to early mainframe computers and minicomputers, sending typed data to the computer and printing the response. Some models could also be used to create punched tape for data storage (either from typed input or from data received from a remote source) and to read back such tape for local printing or transmission. 
Charles Augustus Lindbergh (February 4, 1902 – August 26, 1974), nicknamed Slim,Lucky Lindy, and The Lone Eagle, was an American aviator, author, inventor, explorer, and social activist. The image below shows Charles Lindbergh around the time he made his now famous nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Describe what you think the author means by saying, "there was no color to the land."   
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Do you think it was easy or difficult for the proud men and women to sign the request for work? Why or why not?   
Quiz #2 

11. Triage

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
What do the "government men" hope to accomplish by "drying up the market of surplus beef, hogs, and grain?" 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
What is the problem with the government's plan to increase the price of cattle? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Use your own words to explain how Boise City has changed since it was founded. Use textual evidence where appropriate. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
There is a second and much larger problem with the government's plan. What is the problem? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
What is McCarty's motive for encouraging everyone to stay on their land even when it is obvious that doing so may lead them to starvation? In the space below write an analysis of McCarty's motives. Use textual evidence to support your response. 
A pyrheliometer is an instrument for measurement of direct beam solar irradiance. Sunlight enters the instrument through a window and is directed onto a thermopile which converts heat to an electrical signal that can be recorded. The signal voltage is converted via a formula to measure watts per square meter. The diagram below shows a pyrheliometer. (This annotation contains an image)
The information in the selected text comes from the New York Times, a well known and widely read newspaper. An article in a newspaper is another source of information that the author uses to support his claims. Primary sources are the best source of information because they are the closest in time to the actual event. The video below explains more about primary sources and where to find them. (This annotation contains a video)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Are the suggestions in the selected text practical methods for fixing the problem of the loose soil?  
A micron is a very small unit of measurement. One micron is 1/25,000 of an inch; a 0.1 micron particle is 1/250,000 of an inch (human hairs are between 30 and 120 microns). 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
Caroline Henderson poetically describes the how she feels about her life on the prairie. What are some things she does to cope with the hopelessness that surrounds her? 

12. The Long Darkness

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Why do you think expectant mothers were told to stay in a hospital or rest home for a month before their delivery date?   
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
By reading Shaw's actions, one might believe that he is a determined individual that perseveres through obstacles.  Defend or refute this statement.   
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Why do you think the government offered contracts to wheat farmers if they agreed not to plant the following year?   
Hugh Hammond Bennett (April 15, 1881 – July 7, 1960) was a pioneer in the field of soil conservation in the United States of America. He founded and headed the Soil Conservation Service, a federal agency now referred to as the Natural Resources Conservation Service. Bennett was born near Wadesboro in Anson County, North Carolina and graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1903. Immediately upon graduation, he became a soil surveyor, and conducted soil studies, both in the United States and in other countries, that eventually convinced him that soil erosion was a serious problem facing the planet. The image below shows Hugh Bennett near the end of his career. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Hydrologists are those that study 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
What do you think would be the reaction of those reading the headline, "Cimarron County Oasis" in 1934?   
Yucca are notable for their rosettes of evergreen, tough, sword-shaped leaves and large white flowers. They are native to the hot and dry parts of North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. Yuccas are widely grown as ornamental plants in gardens. Many species also bear edible parts, including fruits, seeds, flowers, flowering stems, and roots. The image below shows a yucca in bloom. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
For Willie Ehrlich, it made him cry to have to kill the young calves at birth when they were half-formed or sick. What does this say about his personal character?   
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
What do you think Rosa's mother meant by saying that "shoes will come next year with the rains?" 
Bonnie Elizabeth Parker (October 1, 1910 – May 23, 1934) and Clyde Chestnut Barrow (March 24, 1909 – May 23, 1934) were American outlaws and robbers from the Dallas area who traveled the central United States with their gang during the Great Depression. Their exploits captured the attention of the American public during the "public enemy era" between 1931 and 1934. Though known today for his bank robberies, Barrow preferred to rob small stores or rural gas stations. The gang is believed to have killed at least nine police officers and several civilians. The couple were eventually ambushed and killed in Bienville Parish, Louisiana, by law officers. The image below shows Bonnie and Clyde. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
How do you think people felt and reacted to reading the Boise City News regarding how they were "getting deeper and deeper in dust?"   
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Debilitating means  
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
All of the following are synonyms for resuscitated except 

13. The Struggle for Air

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
According to the text, what was the greatest problem endured by the Osteen family in the winter of 1935? 
"Mail Order Bride" is a play written by Robert Clinton about an old man who pressures the wild son of a dead friend into marrying a mail-order bride in an attempt to settle him down. 
Dust Pneumonia is an acute infection of the lungs, brought on by exposure to too much dust. Symptoms of dust pneumonia include high fever, pain in the chest, difficulty in breathing, and coughing. (We think this sounds like asthma with a fever.) Antibiotics which fight infection, like penicillin, was not discovered until 1939 and was not in general use until much later. People who had dust pneumonia often died. There are no official death rates published for the Great Plains in the 1930’s, but Red Cross volunteers made and distributed thousands of dust masks. The Kansas State Board of Health reported that in April of 1935, 17 people had already died from dust pneumonia. Below are the parts of the lungs. With dust pneumonia, dust settles all the way into the alveoli of the lungs, stopping the cilia from moving and preventing the lungs from ever clearing themselves. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.2
Which of the excerpts from the text is the main idea of the selected passage.? 

14. Showdown in Dalhart

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
What does a sign that read, "Black man don't let the sun go down on you here" say about the residents of Dalhart?   
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Does referring to the date as the "Dirty Thirties" seem appropriate? Why or why not?   
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Deliberation means  
Dust pneumonia describes disorders caused by excessive exposure to dust storms, particularly during the Dust Bowl in the United States. A form of pneumonia, dust pneumonia results when the lungs are filled with dust, inflaming the alveoli. Symptoms of dust pneumonia include high fever, chest pain, difficulty in breathing, and coughing. People who had dust pneumonia often died. There are no official death rates published for the Great Plains in the 1930s, but Red Cross volunteers made and distributed thousands of dust masks. The Kansas State Board of Health reported that in April 1935, 17 people had already died from dust pneumonia.  
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Tatter means 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Do you feel what the farmers did to the land was a crime?  Why or why not?   
The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad was a prominent railroad in the midwestern United States, commonly known as the "Rock Island." In 1856, the line crossed the first railroad bridge across the Mississippi River, connecting farms in Iowa and beyond to Chicago. The company was originally founded in Rock Island, Illinois.  
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.6
McCarty declared it was time to stop treating the dusters like a plague, and instead give them praise. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Explain your reasoning. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
McCarty had tapped into the resilience of people with his article. True or False?  
Below is a link to additional information regarding homesteads and The Dust Bowl. (This annotation contains a link)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Agronomy is the science of 
Below is a link to information on shanties during the Dust Bowl. (This annotation contains a link)
Charles William "C. W." Post (October 26, 1854 – May 9, 1914), was an American breakfast cereal and foods manufacturer and a pioneer in the prepared-food industry. The image below shows C. W. Post. (This annotation contains an image)
The XIT Ranch was a cattle ranch in the Texas Panhandle which operated from 1885 to 1912. Comprising over 3,000,000 acres (12,000 km²) of land, it ran for two hundred miles (300 km) along the border with New Mexico, varying in width from 20 to 30 miles (30 to 50 km). The ranch stretched across all or portions of Dallam, Hartley, Oldham, Deaf Smith, Parmer, Castro, Bailey, Lamb, Cochran, and Hockley counties. The image below shows the XIT Ranch buildings after its decline in 1912. (This annotation contains an image)

15. Duster's Eve

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
The reader can infer from the text that Ruth Nell's medical condition was most likely caused by the dust in the house. True or false? 
Whooping cough (pertussis) is an infection of the respiratory system caused by bacteria. It's characterized by severe coughing spells, which can sometimes end in a "whooping" sound when the person breathes in. It mainly affects infants younger than 6 months old before they're adequately protected by immunizations, and kids 11 to 18 years old whose immunity has started to fade. Before a vaccine was available, whooping cough killed 5,000 to 10,000 people in the United States each year. Now, the pertussis vaccine has reduced the annual number of deaths to less than 30. But in recent years, the number of cases has started to rise. By 2004, the number of whooping cough cases spiked past 25,000, the highest level it's been since the 1950s. 
A reference to the signs that precede the Apocalypse as it is described in the Book of Revelation. The Book of Revelation, often known simply as Revelation or the Apocalypse, is the final book of the New Testament.  
The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families, ages 18–25 as part of the New Deal. It provided unskilled manual labor jobs related to the conservation and development of natural resources in rural lands owned by federal, state and local governments. The CCC was designed to provide jobs for young men, to relieve families who had difficulty finding jobs during the Great Depression in the United States while at the same time implementing a general natural resource conservation program in every state and territory. We owe many of the amenities that we enjoy in our state and national parks to men like those pictured below. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.7
How does the image further your understanding about the hardships endured by the people of the southern plains.  
A tumbleweed is the above-ground part of any of a number of plants that, once mature and dry, disengages from its root and tumbles away in the wind. The tumbleweed mentioned in the text is Russian thistle. Russian thistle is an annual plant that breaks off at the stem base forming a tumbleweed that disperses its seeds as it rolls on top of the ground. The image below shows a tumbleweed caught in a barbed-wire fence. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
Think carefully about what you have read about Ruth Nell and Loumiza. In the space provides explain how the lives and the deaths of the two are a testimony to the harshness of life endured by many during the Dust Bowl. Use textual evidence when appropriate to support your claims. 

16. Black Sunday

Trench warfare is a form of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of trenches, in which troops are significantly protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery. The most prominent case of trench warfare is the Western Front in World War I. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.2
In your own words summarize how April 14, 1935 was different for the people of the plains than most of the days preceding it. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
From the selected text the reader can infer that 
The video below explains how dust storms get started.  (This annotation contains a video)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
The selected sentence contains which type of literary device? 
Armageddon will be, according to the Book of Revelation, the site of gathering of armies for a battle during the end times, variously interpreted as either a literal or symbolic location. The term is also used in a generic sense to refer to any end of the world scenario. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
The reader can infer from the selected text that the animals are fleeing from a prairie fire. True or false? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
How is the duster of April 14, 1935 different from the storms of the past? 
The image shows the gate and graves of the Boise City Cemetery. What do you notice about the cemetery that is most likely different from the way the cemetery looked when Loumiza was interred there?  (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
The selected sentence includes which type of figurative language? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.5
How does the image further your understanding of the chapter? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Joe Garza receives an initial warning of the storm's approach similar to the one Ike Osteen experiences. What form does Joe's initial warning take? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Joe relied on what method for finding his way back to the wagon? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.2
Which of the statements below does NOT describe a problem experienced by the funeral procession during the dust storm? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
The selected text is an example of  
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
Write a brief explanation of how meteorologists are able to determine the speed of dust storm. 
Blizzards are usually associated with snowstorms in which winds are strong and sustained for long periods of time. Discuss with your class or with a partner why the dust storm of April 14, 1935 is called a "black blizzard" if no snow is falling. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Thomas Jefferson Johnson is stuck outside on Black Sunday when the dust storm moves through. What is the initial outcome for Mr. Johnson? 
Laura Houghtaling Ingalls (December 14, 1903 – January 10, 1967) was a pilot. She was born in Brooklyn, New York on December 14, 1903 to Francis Abbott Ingalls I and Martha Houghtaling. Her most well-known flights were made in 1934 and earned her a Harmon Trophy. Ingalls flew in a Lockheed Air Express from Mexico to Chile, over the Andes Mountains to Rio de Janeiro, to Cuba and then to Floyd Bennett Field in New York, marking the first flight over the Andes by an American woman, the first solo flight around South America in a landplane, the first flight by a woman from North America to South America, and setting a woman's distance record of 17,000 miles. In December 1941, Ingalls was charged by a grand jury with serving as a publicity agent for the Nazi government – specifically, accepting unknown payments from Baron Ulrich von Gienanth of the German Embassy since March of that year. Found guilty, she was sentenced on February 20, 1942, to between eight months and two years. She died on January 10, 1967 in Burbank, California at the age of 63. The image below shows Laura in her plane. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.6
Briefly explain what the author intends when he says the land of the southern plains had betrayed  the Volga. Use textual evidence to support your argument. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
What does the selected text lead the reader to infer about Ehrlich's calf? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.8
The selected sentence is an example of an opinion. It is a belief and cannot be proven. True or false? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
The reader can infer from the text that Bam is shocked by the static electricity that has built up in the stove because of the storm. True or False? 
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages from point to point and point to multipoint over various types of communications channels. The image below shows a teletype similar to the one in John McCarty's office. (This annotation contains an image)
The selected text is a reference to the parting of the Red Sea from the Book of Exodus. The Israelites were slaves to the Egyptians. Moses was selected to deliver them out of slavery. The Egyptians suffered ten plagues before the pharaoh freed the Israelites. Having changed his mind, the pharaoh sent his armies after the fleeing Israelites. Moses held out his staff, and the Red Sea was separated into two halves by God. The Israelites walked on dry ground and crossed the sea, followed by the Egyptian army. Moses again moved his staff once the Israelites had crossed and the sea closed again, drowning the whole of the Egyptian army. 
Woodrow Wilson Guthrie (July 14, 1912 – October 3, 1967) was an American singer-songwriter and folk musician whose musical legacy includes hundreds of political, traditional and children's songs, ballads and improvised works. His best-known song is "This Land Is Your Land." The image below shows Woody playing his guitar.  (This annotation contains an image)

17. A Call to Arms

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.6
"If it rains," were three words that ruled life during the Dust Bowl. What do you think the author meant by this statement? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Very few farms were affected during these droughts and The Dust Bowl.  
The New Deal was a series of domestic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1936, and a few that came later. They included both laws passed by Congress as well as presidential executive orders during the first term (1933–37) of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The programs were in response to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the "3 Rs": Relief, Recovery, and Reform. That is Relief for the unemployed and poor; Recovery of the economy to normal levels; and Reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Ecology is a branch of  
Henry Louis "H. L." Mencken (September 12, 1880 – January 29, 1956) was an American journalist, essayist, magazine editor, satirist, critic of American life and culture, and scholar of American English. Known as the "Sage of Baltimore", he is regarded as one of the most influential American writers and prose stylists of the first half of the twentieth century. Many of his books remain in print. The image below shows Mr. Mencken at his typewriter. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Explain how the Last Man Club may have been a political stunt but worked against the defiant band of nesters.   
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.6
Do you think granting people gas and a spare tire to leave town was a good idea?  Why or why not?   
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.6
"No leaves on bare trees, dunes piled high on the sides of buildings, houses chipped to gray wood, and sand plowed like snow at the edge of town" are examples of the author's use of 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Why do you think Hazel Shaw fought depression?   
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Exodus refers to 

18. Goings

Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material. The charge remains until it is able to move away by means of an electric current or electrical discharge. Static electricity is named in contrast with current electricity, which flows through wires or other conductors and transmits energy. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Do you think it was a weakness for people to get assistance from the government during this time? Why or why not? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
What do you think the author meant by, "he believed in transformation by hand?"   
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Do you think it was easy for Ike's mother to leave the homestead? Why or why not?   

19. Witnesses

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Why do you think Don Hartwell felt the need to begin writing a diary?   
Below is a picture of the Republican River. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
How do the diary entries help us to make better connections to the story?   
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Why is he uncertain of how long they will keep the piano or how long they will be able to keep it? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Gale refers to 
The image below shows the Russian Thistle after it has detached from the ground. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
How did the use of photographers help preserve this time in history for future generations?   
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Peripatetic means to  
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.6
What was the purpose of the film The Plow That Broke the Plains? 

20. The Saddest Land

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
How are the southern plains like a "war zone?" Create a brief response to answer the question. Use details and evidence from the text to support your answer. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.2
Based on the definition of "irony" that you learned in the first part of the book, use your own explain what the selected text means.  
Eminent domain is the power to take private property for public use by a state or national government. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Why does Ernie Pyle call himself "Walking Will?" 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.8
"Letters from the Dust Bowl" is best described as a ___________ resource. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
Why does Caroline Henderson find the dismantling of the well for scrap an "unpardonable sin?"  
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
Comment briefly on Hazel Shaw's decision to leave No Man's Land. She began her time in Oklahoma filled with positivity and hope. What changed? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
The selected text implies the Ehrlich family has a plan to outlast the Dust Bowl. Do you predict the family will remain in their home? Briefly explain the reasoning behind your prediction. 
The video below is an English arrangement of "Gott is de liebe." (This annotation contains a video)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.7
Watch The Plow That Broke the Plains at the link below.http://youtu.be/fQCwhjWNcH8Compare and contrast the image of the Dust Bowl presented in the film to the image presented in The Worst Hard Time. How are the two stories similar? How are the stories different? Which of two formats provides the best understanding of the Dust Bowl. Provide evidence from both the book and the film to support your response. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.8
The letter from John Dawson's mother is an example of a ____________ resource. 
The selected text is a reference to the creation story presented in the Old Testament Book of Genesis. Below is a summary of what God created on the third day. On the third day, God created the dry ground and gathered the waters, calling the dry ground "land," and the gathered waters. On day three, God also created vegetation. Discuss with your class or a partner how Bennitt might conceivably feel similar to God on the third day. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
In the space provided explain why the chapter is named "The Saddest Land." Use textual evidence from the chapter to support your answer.  
The last paragraph of Chapter 20 is very compelling because of the image it evokes in your mind. Think carefully about the image presented here. Discuss with a partner or as a class why this image is so compelling. 

21. Verdict

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
All of the following are synonyms for stark except 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
What did the report claim was the cause for the Dust Bowl?   
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
The report claimed that there was an easy solution to this catastrophe.   
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.6
Do you agree or disagree with Landon's statement that, "the New Deal saved our society?"  Why or why not?   
The Timber Culture Act was a follow-up act to the Homestead Act. It was passed by Congress in 1873. The act allowed homesteaders to get another 160 acres (0.65 km2) of land if they planted trees on one-fourth of the land. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.6
Do you agree with Roosevelt's perseverance on planting tress from the top of the plains to the bottom despite the basic nature of the Great Plains?  Why or why not?    

22. Cornhusker II

Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by a virus. The disease is localized in small blood vessels of the skin and in the mouth and throat. After vaccination campaigns throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the WHO certified the eradication of smallpox in 1979. Smallpox is one of two infectious diseases to have been eradicated, the other being rinderpest. The Center for Disease Control link below offers more information about the disease. (This annotation contains a link)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
All of the following are antonyms for indignation except 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Why do you think that he and his wife went to their cellar for awhile while the air was hazy and dusty? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Although they used to years ago, he and his wife did not go anywhere on July 4th. He feels that those days are gone forever. Do you think he is being overly negative and discouraged? Why or why not?   

23. The Last Men

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
What motivates the people of Dalhart blame Bam White for the way they are portrayed in the The Plow That Broke the Plains? Write a brief response in the space provided. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Based on the evidence in the text, what is the best way to prevent the dust from blowing away? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.7
Carefully study Hogue's Drouth Survivors at the link below.http://media.culturemap.com/crop/6f/80/600x450/Alexandre-Hogue_132721.jpgYou have now read most of The Worst Hard Time, watched The Plow That Broke the Plains, and studied Drouth Survivors. Which medium is most effective in presenting the Dust Bowl? What are the strengths of the medium you chose? What are the limitations of the other two mediums? Use evidence from all three presentations to support your answer. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
"Hoppers" is Bam's word for  
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.6
Which of the statements below best explains why the author includes the many references from the Bible in the text? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.5
What most likely caused the increase in the number of grasshoppers on the plains? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
Explain why John McCarty's departure from Dalhart is ironic. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
What impact does the XIT reunion have on the ranchers who attended? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
What do you think motivated Uncle Dick to give up his c note to the cowboy? Use evidence from the text to support your response. 
The question Lizzie White asks her son, Melt, is very profound considering the hardships endured by the family. Think about your home. What would it take to drive you from the place you that you call "home?" Do you think Melt is making a wise decision returning to the plains?  
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
Consider this statement: Doc Dawson the only true member of the Last Man Club? Do you agree or disagree with this conclusion? Briefly explain your reasoning. 

24. Cornhusker III

Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating, is the scientific method of dating based on the analysis of patterns of tree rings, also known as growth rings. Dendrochronology can date the time at which tree rings were formed, in many types of wood, to the exact calendar year. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Why do you think it was common for these individuals not to celebrate holidays in this part of the country?   
The Lewis and Clark Expedition, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross what is now the western portion of the United States, departing in May, 1804 from near St. Louis on the Mississippi River, making their way westward through the continental divide to the Pacific coast. The map below shows the path followed by the Lewis and Clark expedition.  (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
How do you think people felt having to sell their only possessions to survive?   
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
From his diary entries, he appears to be becoming more discouraged.  Do you agree or disagree with this statement?  Why or why not? 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.6
The dust had finally broken apart Hartwell and his wife, Verna for the first time in twenty-six years. How do you think these individuals were feeling during this time of separation?    
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Obliterate means 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.6
Do you agree with banks foreclosing on homes and property when these individuals were unable to earn an income due to circumstances beyond their control?  Why or why not?   
A reference to the first stages of World War II. The United States became involved in the conflict following the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Why do you think Hartwell ended his diary with a poem and without any additional comments?   

25. Rain

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
"If Roosevelt burned down the Capital we would cheer and say, well, we at least got fire started" was a statement showing the support the American people had for their president. Agree or refute this statement.   
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.6
Why was it important for President Roosevelt to maintain a political face for the crowd?   
The video at the link below shows images from Roosevelt's visit to the Dust Bowl. (This annotation contains a link)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.3
How did President Roosevelt's beliefs about the Dust Bowl change during his time in office? Use evidence from the text to support your response. 
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.4
Restoration refers to 

Epilogue

The map below shows the location and relative size of the Comanche National Grasslands. (This annotation contains an image)
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.8.1
Hugh Bennett's plan to save the soil of the southern plains was a success. True or false? 
Quiz #3