Fast Food Nation

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New York Times Bestseller, 

 With a New Afterword

“Schlosser has a flair for dazzling scene-setting and an arsenal of startling facts . . . Fast Food Nation points the way but, to resurrect an old fast food slogan, the choice is yours.”—Los Angeles Times

In 2001, Fast Food Nation was published to critical acclaim and became an international bestseller. Eric Schlosser’s exposé revealed how the fast food industry has altered the landscape of America, widened the gap between rich and poor, fueled an epidemic of obesity, and transformed food production throughout the world. The book changed the way millions of people think about what they eat and helped to launch today’s food movement.

In a new afterword for this edition, Schlosser discusses the growing interest in local and organic food, the continued exploitation of poor workers by the food industry, and the need to ensure that every American has access to good, healthy, affordable food. Fast Food Nation is as relevant today as it was a decade ago. The book inspires readers to look beneath the surface of our food system, consider its impact on society and, most of all, think for themselves.

“As disturbing as it is irresistible . . . Exhaustively researched, frighteningly convincing . . . channeling the spirits of Upton Sinclair and Rachel Carson.”—San Francisco Chronicle

“Schlosser shows how the fast food industry conquered both appetite and landscape.”—The New Yorker

Eric Schlosser is a contributing editor for the Atlantic and the author of Fast Food Nation, Reefer Madness, and Chew on This (with Charles Wilson).

Curriculet Details
86 Questions
102 Annotations
3 Quizzes

Designed for students in ninth and tenth grades, this free digital curriculum contains annotations explaining rhetorical devices, structure of argument, and opposing viewpoints. It also contains interactive videos that support comprehension, such as videos about use of pathos in marketing and clips from current events related to meat industry recalls. Over the course of the book, students will answer Common Core questions and quizzes related to the subjects of evaluating an argument, identifying elements of an argument, and making inferences based on the evidence presented by the author. This free online unit will increase student engagement while building reading comprehension.

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You can quickly find the definition of any words in the text or questions by selecting a word and choosing the "Define" feature. Try this with any words that are unfamiliar to you. 
This highlighted passage is an example of which rhetorical device? 
The author is seeking to define the relationships between consumption, identity, and economics.  
Consider the economic ramifications which would occur if McDonald's were to go bankrupt. 
Which of following are examples of a backlash to the phenomenon in the highlighted passage?  
Suburban development parallels the development of fast food chains. Where there are people, there are fast food restaurants.  
What is the author's central argument? 
Eating a hamburger and fries is a literal example of mass consumption, but does the author imply that it can have more harmful effects because it is eaten? Can you argue that something that is indoctrinated into your consciousness is also dangerous? 

1. The Founding Fathers

Carl Karcher's father believed, "The harder you work, the luckier you become". This is an inspirational thought, but is it true? What did Carl's father imply? 
The author includes the anecdote about Carl and his wife selling hotdogs while their daughter slept in the car to demonstrate their entrepenureal spirit, but the author is also emphasizing  
The author is using several historical factors to present an argument about the advent of fast food. One of these factors is political events that cause a social change (war and catastrophic geological changes). The second factor is technology as an impetus for social change.  
The author contends that the rise of the drive-ins was a direct result of the prevalence of  
Consider the factors that lead the federal government to spend so much money in southern California during WWII. The area was a part of a coast that needed fortification, and also facilitated the transport of goods and services overseas. 
By applying the factory assembly line, the McDonald brothers were not only innovative, but the author suggests   
By lowering their price point, the brothers knowingly targeted a different consumer: families. This then changes the atmosphere of the establishment and gives it longevity. No longer are you catering to fickle teenagers as the backbone of your business, but you are catering to families who will enjoy the same thing each week. 
The author contends that the development of Carl's Junior is an amalgamation of political factors,competition, technological advancements, and economic boom. What does the author demonstrate by including all of these factors?  
By including examples of failed business, the author illustrates that businesses that attempted to capitalize on technological innovations may have been lacking in taste and service. In order to succeed, a fast food restaurant needed to embrace technology while retaining taste and service. 
The author contrast Carl Karcher's life before and after Carl's Jr. went public. The author implies that Karcher was much more financially secure prior to selling stock in Carl's Jr. There are fast food chains that still refuse to "go public". For example, In-N-Out Burger restaurants are all privately owned and operated by the same family. The owners will not franchise to other people. They do not want to risk losing control over quality and providing excellent service to loyal customers.  
The author uses the imagery in this paragraph to convey how the fast food industry has changed from a service industry that ______ with the culture to a service industry that _______ the culture. 

2. Your Trusted Friends

The author includes the detailed description of the cultural center of McDonald's and its unique employee education suggests that the McDonald's corporation strives for  
The McDonald's philosophy is "Quality, Service, Cleanliness, and Value". Based on the claims the author is trying to prove, do you think he believes that fast food chains follow the QSC and V creed? 
The highlighted passage is alluding to an attraction at an amusement park. What is the author's tone? 
The author parallels the lives of Ray Kroc and Walt Disney to illustrate how the two men helped to develop industries that became part of the American cultural identity. Yet according to the author, "Kroc may have been more influential." This statement is an example of a 
The author describes the first part of Kroc's letter to Walt Disney as "the warm-up." This implies that Kroc feigned nostalgia to get into Disney's good graces.  
Which creed to captures both Kroc and Disney' business philosophy? 
The author includes this example to imply that the government supported the McDonald's bill due to Kroc's political donations and the Republicans' desire to lower the federal minimum wage. The debate about the minimum wage still rages on today. Click on the link to the article below to read more about the current debate on raising or removing the minimum wage statue.  (This annotation contains a link)
The author implies that embracing technology without question is dangerous. Do you agree or disagree? Can you identify technology that is implementation is impeded by social, political, economic or moral issues? 
Disney pioneered a marketing strategy known as "synergy." Synergy is a term that means the outcome is greater than the sum of its parts. By utilizing synergy, Disney allowed companies other than Disney to use the Mickey Mouse image; essentially it was a licensing deal that included product placement and promotion within films. Below is a link to a website with more information about the use of synergy in marketing.  (This annotation contains a link)
Kroc succeeded in competing with Disney by creating a microcosm of Disney's larger enterprise in McDonald's restaurants. Which two elements did Kroc combine to achieve this goal? 
The author states that "many working parents, feeling guilty about spending less time with their kids, started spending more money on them". He offers this as a cause for an "explosion in children's advertising" during the 1980's.  
In order for a company to attract a child to purchase its product, an entire study must be completed and focus groups must be consulted. The need to capture children as consumers has led to the development of an entire other workforce designed around analyzing children's needs and wants.  
The author suggests that the tactics utilized by McDonald's to solicit information from children were surreptitious and could endanger children. What grounds does the author use to support this implication?  
Through the author's inclusion of the anecdote about the FTC and the special interest groups that lobbied Congress, the author implies that special interest groups, due to their financial backing, are more powerful than the FTC to create guidelines for marketing. 
The author suggests that there is a symbiotic relationship between toy manufacturers and fast food chains. According to the author's grounds, what are both groups capitalizing upon? 
"Ethos" is a term meaning the guiding beliefs of a community or entity. In rhetorical terms, "ethos" means the ethical appeal or the ability to convince one's audience based on his or her credibility. Ethos, pathos, and logos are all utilized in marketing and developing an argument.  
The marketing slogan "Trusted Friend" is an example of the use of pathos, or emotional appeal, in marketing. This is an attempt by the company to evoke an emotional connection or response from the consumer. The slogan __________ the McDonald's corporation as a friend you can trust. 
The fast food industry is seeking to maintain customers from an early age through adulthood. They achieve this by maintaining a constant presence in the consumers' lives.  
Do you think that by allowing product placement throughout a school district a student's education may be compromised? Why or why not? 
Based on the districts own assertions, it would have never sought corporate sponsorship "if it weren't for the acute need for funds." This is presented by the author as grounds to support which claim? 
A warrant is the inferential leap that an audience member will make based on the claim and grounds of an argument. The warrant explains how the grounds support the claim. Below is a image that may help you better understand a warrant. Based on this statement, the warrant that the author would like you to make is that soda consumption is ruining the health of society's youth. Milk is an option that is healthier because of the vitamins and protein it contains compared to the sugar and chemicals soda is comprised of.  (This annotation contains an image)
The warrant you can make based on the  author's claim that the "tax cuts that are hampering America's schools have proved to be a marketing bonanza" for large corporations is that  

3. Behind the Counter

"Sprawl" refers to the expansion of development into what was once a rural area. The author juxtaposes the vastly different areas of Colorado to demonstrate how towns that are free from chain stores and restaurants' influences maintain much more charm and retain customers to the same degree.  (This annotation contains an image)
The advent of Colorado Springs as a town "dependent on military spending" is grounds to illustrate the author's claim  
The author outlines the change in the political tendency in Colorado Springs and states that "there is not a single elected official in Colorado Springs ... who's a registered Democrat". These are grounds that the author is using to develop his claim that Conservative and Republican groups help facilitate the roots fast food corporations have in America. 
Which comparison does the author use to show that Colorado's conservative influence has negatively impacted the state over time? 
The author explains the connection between impulse purchases and fast food chains' ability to be seen by the customer. The less visible the signage, the less likely the business will attract customers. Brand loyalty only plays a role in which restaurant to choose, not whether to stop and eat at a restaurant in the first place.  
There is an implied relationship between the technological progress that is used in the McDonald's owned by Bigari and the construction completed across the street. What parallel can you draw between the two?  
The author uses  __________ to emphasize the lack of fresh ingredients in a fast food establishment 
The idea of throughput is utilized and valued in all areas of business. The video clip below describes the ideas of "throughput" and "latency" in terms of transferring information via the internet.  (This annotation contains a video)
The author claims that due to the implementation of the assembly line, emphasis has been placed on "throughput". He also states that familiar foods have been transformed into "commodities". The use of the term "commodities" suggests that the food is not necessarily a quality substance.  
Based on the author's claims that the standardized system of food production leads to an interchangeable workforce, you can infer all of the following about fast food workers except 
The highlighted statement implies that corporations are intentionally misusing government funds.  
"Orders of magnitude more" is an example of a qualifier because it is a degree attached to a claim. Below is a sample argument that is diagrammed to illustrate the qualifier.  (This annotation contains an image)
The author includes the highlighted statistic to illustrate  
The author illustrates how an assembly line system for preparing food saves corporations money. 
The author includes a description of "stroking" to illustrate what corporations will do in order to increase worker output without having to spend money on labor costs.  
The author claims that allowing individual managers and franchises to establish wages determined by "local labor markets" is  
The author states that "few of the students" at the local high school in Colorado Springs work at fast food establishments because "most of them are white and upper-middle class." The warrant is that there is a social and economic element that guides students in selecting jobs. Does the author include any evidence or grounds to support this claim?  
The author includes the description of "sweet-faced Elisa" to contrast with the treatment she receives from the customers. The author is utilizing pathos in his argument. He is relying on your sympathy for Elisa's situation to further understand and agree with his claim. 
The students are not focused on improving their working conditions. As the author states, "when these kids don't like the working conditions... they quit." Overall, this indicates the staff's lack of ___________. 
The author includes the highlighted statistic to demonstrate that the perils of working in fast food are beyond the scope of long hours and low wages.  
Joseph A. Kinney states that "no other American industry is robbed so frequently by its own employees" than fast food establishments. This implies that the crimes are _________ worker dissatisfaction.  
Do you agree with the author's claim that "crime and fast food" are ubiquitous? Use evidence to support your answer. 
The murders at a Wendy's restaurant in Queens, NY made national headlines. Below is a link to a New York Times article about the trial of one of the men convicted in the slayings.  (This annotation contains a link)
In the recounting of Doherty's speech and Novak's speech does the author display any bias? Cite examples to support your conclusion. Would appearing biased impede or support the author's argument that the fast food industry's labor practices are unscrupulous? 
Quiz #1: Introduction - Chapter 3 
The author includes "a major donor to the Republican Party" in his description of Norman Brinker to emphasize the connection between the large corporations and the federal government.  

4. Success

What evidence does the author use to support the assessment that Dave Feamster is "completely out of place" with his employees and customers?  
The relationship between the franchisor and the franchisee should ideally be symbiotic. If it is, both work together to avoid losing money and profiting.  
The author compares Kroc's franchising strategy to that of a "charismatic leader of a new faith" recruiting followers. How are the two similar?    
The author uses Sonneborn's testimony to illustrate how thoroughly developed McDonald's business strategy is. The means of profitability are not solely designated to large sales of food, but to real estate purchased and leased as well. 
The author concludes that the McDonald's business model, built on simplicity, uniformity, and replication, was copied by other companies in different industries because it was so successful. 
The author points out a very important detail to consider when analyzing or utilizing statistical data to support an argument: what does the sample survey consist of? In this case, the author notes that the sample survey consisted of franchisees who were still in business rather than including any who were bankrupt. 
The author mentions the lack of federal legal protection that franchisees have in comparison to independent business owners in order to further characterize large corporations as ________ to the basic rights and needs of their labor force.  
Based on statistical evidence presented by the author, Subway restaurants are most likely the worst franchising deal for the franchisee. However, "roughly 30 to 50 percent of Subway's new franchisees are immigrants." This implies that Subway exploits immigrants seeking to be entrepreneurs in America. 
Which statement does the author present as grounds that could possibly weaken his argument that the federal government supports fast food corporations without reservation? 
The author characterizes Feamster as candid and sincere. He is as dedicated to the success of his business as he is to the community in which he serves.  
Why does the author include details about Feamster's relationship with his employees?  
In order to illustrate the dichotomy between Lowe's upbringing and his current beliefs, the author states that "the meek shall no longer inherit the earth; the go-getters will get it and everything that goes with it." This is an example of  
The juxtaposition of Reeve's testimony and the pitches of the other speakers serves to reiterate the author's claim that business strives for the sake of business and does not take into consideration the men and women who are the foundation of their organizations.  

5. Why the Fries Taste Good

The author uses the metaphor "a gambler who's scored big" to describe J.R. Simplot to emphasize that Simplot's success is an _______ based on other successful entrepreneurs of his time. 
Based on the author's description of Simplot's life prior to becoming a potato farmer, he can be characterized as diligent, self-made, and savvy. 
How does Simplot's business plan parallel fast food chains such as McDonald's? Use examples from the text to support your answer.  
Due to the advent of Simplot's frozen fries and the partnership with fast food corporations, the author suggests that Simplot and Kroc helped to change the eating habits of the average American. What evidence does the author use to support this statement? 
The author implies that the use of frozen fries was widely implemented in all of McDonald's chains because it saved money in terms of preparation and did not impact the taste. This "made french fries one of the most profitable items on the menu". These grounds support the author's claim that fast food industries and their affiliates are primarily concerned about profit. 
The author indicates that the potato farmers operate under an "oligopsony" market. This can be a detriment to the smaller farmers because the larger fast food corporations dictate the demand for the product resulting in control over pricing. If the buyers do not purchase the large quantities of potatoes, than the farmers do not have anyone to sell to. This leaves the farmers in a predicament. They are not making the money; the processors and fast food chains are.  
A populist is someone who believes that the government should benefit and protect the working class. "Goldwater Republican" is a term used to describe someone who is a conservative and believes that the federal government should be limited. The term references Barry Goldwater, about whom you can read more in the link below. (This annotation contains a link)
The author implies that it is _________ that potato farmers refuse to ally themselves with one another to bargain a fair deal with the processors due a value placed on independence, but in order to survive, they are forced to lose their independence to the processing plants.  
The author includes the hourglass analogy to support his claim that corporations are exploiting both ends of production: the consumer and the producer. 
The author implies that the flavor industry is "highly secretive" to not only protect the trade secrets of its clients, but to also prevent people from knowing the exact ingredients used to create flavor in processed foods. It is impossible for people to know what they are consuming if the ingredients are not revealed. 
The author states, "the long chemical names on the little white labels were as mystifying to me as medieval Latin" to show that 
The author includes an explanation about how humans taste with their tastebuds as well as with their sense of smell in order to provide the reader with justification as to why corporations spend so much money on odors to enhance flavor. 
The author contrasts traditional culinary terms such as ounces and teaspoons to the measurement of chemical aromas such as parts per billion to emphasize the  
The author includes the list of ingredients strawberry flavoring in order to support his claim that many ingredients in processed foods are not recognizable to the average consumer.  
The author contends that the only difference between a "natural flavor" and an "artificial flavor" is the  
Based on the author's extensive explanation about the processes needed to create the McDonald's french fry flavoring, one can assume that the flavoring is not natural, but created utilizing technological advancements in biotechnology and market research. 
The author continually mentions the advent of new technologies coinciding with the rise of industry to convey  
What element of production is missing in the highlighted paragraph?  

6. On the Range

According to the author, Hank does not have any tolerance for urban environmentalists who criticize the cattle industry. Hank implies that he lives on the land and sees the effects of cattle ranching first hand and knows how far less damaging cattle ranching is than over-development of the land.  
The author's inclusion of Fountain Creek serves to demonstrate the negative environmental impact that poorly planned and overdeveloped land has on farmers in the neighboring regions. This is an example of  
The debate over ranchers is still viable today. For, Cliven Bundy, a rancher from Nevada, is currently at odds with the federal government's Bureau of Land Management over grazing rights for his cattle. The dispute began nearly twenty years ago and over years of fines and Bundy's disregard for laws. Bundy originally received support from Conservative groups. However, Bundy's recent comments about slavery and civil rights caused many people to withdraw their support for him. The link below outlines the most recent armed standoff between Bundy and the BLM.  (This annotation contains a link)
The highlighted statement implies that the author believes the _____________  are responsible for allowing trusts to form once again.  
Meatpacking companies leasing ranches parallels how large corporate farms purchase the majority of the potato farms. In both scenarios, large companies have the means to control price.  
Why does the author most likely include the highlighted statement? 
The author includes this detail to imply that Tyson is similar to the other large corporations in that they exploit the smaller farmers in order to maintain a large profit margin.  
The author states that "growers who are labeled 'difficult' often have no choice but to find a new line of work". The author is alluding to an industry 
The author provides the meatpacking companies counter perspective, or _________, in order to acknowledge the opposing perspective and respond to its claims.  
It is important to note that there is a difference between correlation and causation. A correlation is when a relationship between two factors is determined based on occurrence. The two factors do not necessarily have anything to do with one another. A causation is when two factors are connected by a cause and effect relationship. To prove that one factor is the cause of another, an arguer must provide conclusive evidence to support the claim. As you read, think about the difference between causation and correlation.  
In the highlighted statement, what does the term "vanishing" most nearly mean? 
Is the relationship between the lack of Western attire correlated to the loss of rancher culture or caused by the loss of rancher culture? Does the author provide enough evidence to support a cause and effect relationship? 
The author leads the reader to make the warrant that the loss of the American rancher equates to a loss of the American identity and a disconnect to American history. 
The author includes the __________ about Hank's suicide to illustrate a larger problem that is developing as a result of larger corporations decimation of the small farmer and rancher. 
The author juxtaposes the denouement of the children's book with Hank's death to emphasize the sadness and anguish of Hank's death. 
Quiz #2: Chapters 4-6 

7. Cogs in the Great Machine

The author's claim is that the demands of the fast food industry have required meatpacking plants to increase efficiency which result in a decrease of wages and loss of skilled labor. This chapter will seek to provide grounds to support this claim.  
The author's style in his description of the cattle feed facilities can be described as journalistic or expository.  
The author uses the repetition of the correlative relationship between political affiliation and business approach throughout the text. Here he implies that Monfort was  _________ in the meatpacking industry because his political inclinations were democratic.  
The author's use of the term "compassionate paternalism" implies that the relationship between corporation and employee was amicable and fair.  
The author initially utilizes the examples of Monfort and Swift to serve exemplars for proper business practices in the meatpacking industry.  
The author purposefully structures his text in two parts: the first part of the text defines and provides examples of throughout, efficiency, centralization, and control in terms of the fast food industry. The latter part of the text provides additional examples in the same terms of the use of the fast food industries business model that was copied and implemented by McDonald's business partners and associates. The warrant is that other industries modified their means of production and accepted the exploitation of the laborers as standard business practice in order to keep up with the demands of the burgeoning fast food industry. 
The author utilizes which rhetorical device to illustrate how the larger corporations implement technology in order to cut labor costs and remove skilled and unionized workers? 
La Cosa Nostra originated as part of the Italian mafia. It operates within the New York City and Washington, DC areas. La Cosa Nostra was the inspiration for the Godfather film series. More information on the group can be found in the link below. Based on Holman's involvement with organized crime and managerial style, did he foster an environment that would lead to violence? (This annotation contains a link)
The author explains how by moving production to the West, companies were able to reduce wages and increase profits. Do American companies still move their factories or headquarters to save money on production and labor? Cite at least two examples of modern industry employing this business strategy. 
The author implies that the disintegration of the labor unions parallels the meatpacking industry's decline in Chicago. Without the meatpacking industry to support a workforce, many facets of the economy are effected.  
The author believes that a shift in political conscience was the impetus for such a drastic change. Do you believe that there are other contributing factors to Monfort's change in business approach? 
The image of the non-unionized meat packing plants resembles McDonald's establishments in which way?  
The author states that the Greeley plant offers health insurance and vacation to employees who remain at the plant for six months and a year respectively. The author also states that the turnover rate is 80 percent each year. This suggests that most employees do not receive either of those benefits. Do you think the corporation offers these benefits as an incentive or to seem "paternalistic" by industry outsiders? 
The author suggests that one effect of the meatpacking industry's reliance on a low-wage workforce is  
The author states that when Harper threatened to move his corporate base out of Nebraska unless the tax codes were rewritten to benefit large corporations, the state legislator equated his threat as blackmail. Do you think this is an appropriate term?  
The author includes the example of Lexington and the changes it has undergone since the inception of the IBP slaughterhouse to  
Consider the title of the chapter "Cogs in a Great Machine." Who are the cogs? What does the metaphor imply about the labor force? 

8. The Most Dangerous Job

The author uses an austere, nondescript images to describe the Lamb Weston plant and the meatpacking plant to emphasize the plants' 
The video clip below shows a Smithfield meatpacking facility. It will give you an idea about how a kill floor looks.  (This annotation contains a video)
The author describes his tour from the end of the production line and finishes his description where the cattle are still in pens and gently lowing in the moonlight. Why do you think the author provides his account of the tour of the slaughterhouse backwards? Is the author utilizing pathos? 
The automation of most industries is often viewed as a detriment in regards to employment; machines can replace man. But in the meatpacking industry, where automation may prevent injury, this is not possible. 
The author presents a network of interrelated causes for employee compliance with the excessive and dangerous production line speed. All of the follow are reasons for compliance except?  
The author suggests that the tactics that meatpacking management use to deter employees from reporting injury or seeing a physician is unethical because they encourage employees to take a short period to recuperate or return to work on an easier task or shift rather than report their injuries to a doctor. 
A former cleaning crew member states, "It takes a really dedicated person or a really desperate person to get the job done." This implies that the job is  
The author's argument is weakened by his confirmation bias. Confirmation bias is when an argument is based on information that is either gathered selectively or the arguer's bias influences its interpretation. Here the author contends that "the death rate among slaugterhouse sanitation crews is extraordinarily high" because of horrific stories about cleaning crew accidents. However if no statistics are kept on sanitation crew fatalities, can he state with certainty or authority that death rates are "extraordinarily high"? 
Based on the author's examples, what other cause can you identify for the workers' accidents?  
Once again, you must question the author's logic in his argument about sanitation crew deaths. Third-fallacy is when an arguer confuses a spurious relationship for cause. For example, a arguer may believe that X caused Y, when in reality they were both the result of an additional outside factor (z). The author believes that unsafe labor conditions caused the deaths of the sanitation crew members, but he fails to take into account another common thread in all the accounts: human error or negligence. The author is employing pathos once again to help the reader make an inferential leap, but the author does not sufficiently prove his claim that the sanitation crew is the deadliest job in a meatpacking plant. 
The author provides litany of IBP employees who willfully deceived federal regulators and fabricated reports in order to illustrate  
The author contends that Ferrell's job loss was a direct result of his directive to shutdown the IBP Palestine plant.  
Which line from the texts insinuates a relationship between the development of the legislation and the meatpacking industry? 
Once again the author contends there is a causation between a rise in Republican political power and a decrease in protections for the blue collar worker.  
The author utilizes particular testimony and narratives to illicit a sympathetic response from the reader. This is known as pathos. Pathos is when an arguer uses an appeal to the audience's emotions. Emotions play an important role in value judgments but can also contribute to confirmation bias because audience members may draw illogical conclusions based on their emotions not the logical appeal. An example of pathos used in advertising is the SPCA video featuring Sarah McLachlan's "Angel." The clip is included below.  (This annotation contains a video)
All of the follow are examples of Kenny's unwavering loyalty except  
The description of the certificate implies that the award meant nothing to Kenny's superiors.  
Unlike the other examples the author uses to demonstrate the companies' indifference to human life, Kenny's story is particularly heart wrenching because Kenny was devoted to the plant even though he was physically and financially destroyed by his work at the plant and his loyalty meant nothing to the corporation.  

9. What’s in the Meat

What do you think the title "What's in the Meat" refers to? Consider the structure of the author's argument thus far and the sequence of events he has presented to you to formulate your response.  
The author includes details about the latent and long-term effects of food pathogens to emphasize the importance of clean and maintained food production plants. 
The author argues that "the rise of huge feedlost, slaughterhouses, and hamburger grinders" is the cause of the spread of E.coli0157:H7. This faulty logic is an example of  
The author claims that sexual promiscuity and air travel were the factors responsible for spreading the AIDS virus. This is an example of "post hoc." This is logical fallacy in an argument where the arguer attributes a chronological relationship as a causation. (Y followed X; therefore X caused Y). In Malcom Gladwell's text The Tipping Point, he suggests that there are three factors, not just sexual promiscuity, that lead to the spread of AIDS. Gladwell contends that drug use, particularly the use of crack cocaine, unsafe sexual practices, and the migration of people out of low income areas such as the projects of Baltimore. For more information on Gladwell's theory about the spreading of epidemics, click on the link below.  (This annotation contains a link)
The author uses such blatant terms to explain the contamination of beef in meatpacking plants to shock the audience. 
More recently, there was another voluntary beef recall from Wolverine Packing Company in Detroit that was delivered to restaurant chains.  (This annotation contains a video)
The horrific images the author recounts in describing Alex's suffering and death as a result of eating a tainted hamburger are meant to illicit an emotional response from the audience. The author is using  
All of the following are causes for the spread of disease within the plant except  
Is this a strong analogy? Why or why not? 
The statement made by Thomas Wilson, an executive at Morris & Company, that "Men are men and it is pretty hard to control some of them," is ironic because it is more applicable to the mangers and leaders of the meatpacking industry than it is the laborers within the plants.  
The author includes a brief description of Judge James R. Rowlin that he is a conservative and a cattleman. This implies the judge had knowledge of the meatpacking industry and therefore allowed the testing to continue.  
What is the most likely reason why the meatpacking industry refers to David Theno as "the Anitchrist"?   
The Center for Public Integrity is the "largest nonpartisan, nonprofit investigative news organizations" ( However, you should always be suspect of any organization that relies on donations and endowments to operate. The Center for Public Integrity's report should be considered but not automatically accepted as fact. Here is more information on the organization.  (This annotation contains a link)
The author outlines the series of events by amount of meat recalled to emphasize the length of the duration the meat was circulated in respect to when Hudson Foods knew about the tainted meat. One can infer that Hudson Foods did not act swiftly enough to prevent further illness. 
The author contends that the problem with the recalls are not about allowing the meat industry to voluntarily recall the meat, it is not requiring the meat industry to notify the public or the government about the recall. The author suggests that the meat industry uses this lapse to avoid culpability. 
The USDA now issues press releases about every recall of meat but is not able to release the recipients of the product; the only information released is where the meat was shipped. What is a possible rebuttal the author may have? 
Though the cause and extent of the voluntary recalls from different meat producers may differ, the author ends each retelling with the same information: the duration between the recall and the sale of the meat was long enough for most meat to be consumed. This implies that the meatpacking industry is indifferent to preventing spread of disease and more concerned with maintaining profit margins.  
The author includes the fact "the Hudson Foods plant in Columbus, Nebraska was operating under a HACCP plan in 1997 when it shipped 35 million pounds of potentially tainted meat" to imply which of the following? 
The meatpacking industry wants to use the term "cold pasteurization" rather than "irradiation" because the industry realizes the connotation of the word irradiate is negative and believes it will impact sales. This use of euphemisms to manipulate the public's perspective is outline in George Orwell's essay, "Politics and the English Language." In the essay Orwell describes how language is a tool that can be used to manipulate and deceive. A link to the essay can be found below.  (This annotation contains a link)
To support the author's policy claim that an objective third party should oversee the safety practices of the  meatpacking industry, he includes an incident in which contaminated beef is sold to the government for children's consumption. This is an example of using __________ to win over an audience. 
The author implies that fast food chains have more authority over the meat supplied to their restaurants than the federal government because the loss of the fast food chains' business is a greater financial threat than the federal government.  

10. Global Realization

Plauen is a prime example of a ________ because it is not regarded by any Germans as a cosmopolitan hub, but the events there are inexplicably connected to the "rise and fall of great social movements." 
The author describes Plauen's history as a series of events that are links in a chain. The struggles faced by Plauen are rooted in economics and impacted the social and political dynamics of the city.  
By opening a restaurant inside East Germany, McDonald's symbolized the introduction of ___________ into Eastern Germany. 
The author implies that McDonald's is adapting cultures to the needs of McDonald's rather than McDonald's adapting to the culture it is introduced to. This is evident by the McDonald's corporation importing their agricultural production systems into foreign countries and teaching farmers in India to grow engineered iceburg lettuce.  
Based on the cultural similarities between the United States and Germany, the author suggests that McDonald's exponential growth in Germany is  
By building so close to a museum that memorializes Holocaust victims and handing out pamphlets that read "Welcome to Dachau and welcome to McDonald's" implies that McDonald's has no respect for the sanctity of locations. 
The gambling industry is a prime example of irony because  
The author implies that the reason that most compelled Gorbachev to speak at the conference is his desperate financial situation.  
The author utilizes the symbolism of having Gorbachev speak at the convention and the appearance of conquered leaders at the circus in Rome to convey that the real leaders of the United States were not seated in Congress or in the White House but in the convention center in Las Vegas. The men seated in the audience had the financial means to influence and control legislation in America and in countries all over the world. Do you think that the author has provided enough evidence to justify this warrant? 
Think about the authority, testimony, and statistics which the author provides as grounds to support his claim that Americans are more obese than ever before. 
The author states that "a taste for fat developed in childhood is difficult to lose as an adult" to reiterate the marketing ploy by the fast food industry. They target children to become lifelong customers and create an addiction. 
By citing the increase in the number of fast food chains in Great Britain and the increase in the obesity rate among adults, the author presents the relationship as a causation. Does he prove causation or only correlation? Does he support his claim with statistical evidence? 
Which symbolic role has McDonald's assumed?  
The author outlines the guidelines to prove libel in Great Britain compared to the United States in order to provide a justification of why McDonald's prefers to sue in Great Britain than in the United States.  
The Haldane Society of Socialists Lawyers is a group based in England whose sole purpose is to provide legal representation to disenfranchised and exploited people. Below is a link the group's website.  (This annotation contains a link)
The irony in the case is that McDonald's believed that it was such a large corporation with seemingly unlimited financial assets that it could not lose the case. However, due to McDonald's global omnipresence, the corporation had many enemies who were willing to help defend these two activists. The result was a humiliating trial, regardless of the outcome.  
The fact that McDonald's corporation felt it necessary to spy on London Greenpeace and Morris and Steel insinuates that McDonald's  
The irony of the "McLibel" case is that the McDonald's corporation, in its attempt to make an example out of Morris and Steel, refused to ignore the the pamphlet and created a larger public relations problem for themselves and exposed more issues within their corporation than Morris and Steel could have ever exposed. 
After the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Communist elite still remain among the most prosperous people in Germany. This suggests that the introduction of consumerism and chains such as McDonald's have done little to change the middle class lifestyle. 
Chapters 7-10 
Why do you think the author ends his text and his argument with the image of the transplanted American West in Germany?